Among its distinguished alumni and associates, the University has links with many Nobel Prize winners.
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by a group of Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of internationally significant cultural and scientific advances.
Prizes are given each year for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economic Sciences.
Emeritus Professor Peter Higgs received a Nobel Prize for his work in predicting the Higgs boson, which explains how fundamental particles acquire mass.
His theory was confirmed by the discovery of the predicted particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012.
Professor Igor Tamm, a former student, received a Nobel Prize for the joint discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect.
This can be used to measure the intensity of a nuclear reaction and how much radioactivity is left in spent nuclear fuel rods.
The development of quantum mechanics was the subject of the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics, which was awarded to Max Born, a Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh.
Sir Edward Appleton, former Principal, received a Prize for his contribution to the development of radar.
Charles Glover Barkla, a Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University, was awarded a Prize for his discovery of characteristic X-ray elements. His work defined how X-rays behave. Barkla's Prize was presented in 191 later.
Physics alumnus and honorary Doctor of Science Dr Richard Henderson was jointly awarded the prize with Professor Jacques Dubochet of the University of Lausanne and Professor Joachim Frank of Columbia University, New York, US.
Their award was made for developing cryo-electron microscopy, which has enabled high-resolution imaging of biomolecules in solution.
Chemistry alumnus Professor Sir Fraser Stoddart shared the Prize with Jean-Pierre Sauvage and Bernard Feringa for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.
The award recognised Professor Stoddart’s pioneering development of the rotaxane molecule, enabling molecules to move, which he did in 1991.
Visiting Professor Kurt Wüthrich received a Prize for the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.
The technique enables scientists to assess the physical and chemical properties of compounds, and has greatly aided progression of the life sciences.
Peter Mitchell, a Visiting Professor at Edinburgh, discovered how cells generate the energy they need, called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), by the movement of hydrogen across cell membranes.
Lord Alexander Todd, a researcher at the University, was recognised for his work on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, the molecules that form DNA, and their co-enzymes, which help the molecules to function properly.
Former medical researcher Professor Vincent du Vigneaud was awarded a Prize for work that focused on unravelling the structure and synthesis of the hormone oxytocin, which is involved in childbirth, called. Artificial forms of oxytocin can be given to induce labour.
Sir Winston Churchill, former Rector of the University, received the Prize for "his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".
Professor Michael Rosbash of Brandeis University in Waltham, US, was a researcher at Edinburgh in the early 1970s.
He is one of three scientists recognised for their work in so-called circadian rhythms - the 24-hour cycle that controls sleeping, waking, and other basic processes in living things.
Professor Rosbash shares the prize with Professor Jeffrey Hall, also of Brandeis, and Professor Michael Young of Rockefeller University.
Professor Edvard Moser and Professor May-Britt Moser, both university affiliates, received the Prize for their work on discoveries of spatial cells in the brain.
From 1995 to 1997, the husband-and-wife team worked as post-doctoral researchers with Professor Richard Morris at the University's Centre for Cognitive and Neural Systems.
Edvard Moser is an Honorary Professor at Edinburgh.
Professor Schekman, who studied as an undergraduate exchange student at Edinburgh from 1968–1969, shared the 2013 award with James Rothman and Thomas C Südhof for their groundbreaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking - a way in which cells transport materials.
Sir Robert Edwards, an Edinburgh alumnus, won his prize for the development of in-vitro fertilisation, the technique behind test tube babies.
Sir Paul Nurse, a former post-doctorate researcher at Edinburgh, was recognised for his discovery of a gene that controls cell cycle regulation. The gene - cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) - could aid cancer research.
Professor Peter Doherty, an Edinburgh graduate, received his Prize for discovering how the body’s immune system protects against viruses
Professor Hermann Muller, who worked at the University’s Institute of Animal Genetics, received his Prize for research that revealed the damaging effects of X-ray radiation.
Former Rector Sir Alexander Fleming was awarded a Prize for his discovery of the antibiotic penicillin.
Honorary graduate Malala Yousafzai was recognised for her support of children and young people.
Ms Yousafzai is the youngest recipient to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
Professor Gabi Hegerl and Professor Mark Rounsevell, both of the School of GeoSciences, contributed to the work of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore.
Dr Terry Barker, a former student at Edinburgh, also took part in the work of the IPCC.
Sir Joseph, who was Montague Visiting Professor of International Relations at the University from 1975–1976, was awarded a prize for efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international affairs and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms.
His prize was shared with the Pugwash Conferences, an international organisation that sought to reduce the danger of armed conflict and to seek solutions to global security threats, particularly relating to nuclear warfare.
Former student Sir James Mirrlees was honoured for his pioneering economic theories, including studies on income tax.
Honorary Professor Sir Michael Atiyah received an Abel Prize along with Professor Isadore Singer for the Atiyah-Singer theorem.
The theorem is considered one of the landmark discoveries of modern mathematics and is used in theoretical physics.