Dr Ian Hardwick (PhD, MA, BA (Hons), NVQ, PCIfA, AFHEA)
Postdoctoral Research Assistant - 'Beyond Walls: Reassessing Iron Age and Roman Encounters in Northern Britain' project
School of History, Classics and Archaeology
William Robertson Wing
Old Medical School
University of Edinburgh
- Post code
- EH8 9AG
Ian has a background in both landscape archaeology and Iron Age and Roman-period studies in northern England / southern Scotland (developed during an MA and PhD at the University of York and within his current postdoctoral role), focussed particularly on concepts of landscape, identity and frontiers / borders and how the three of these interact and inform one another during this period.
To examine such issues, Ian's research uses large-area, non-intrusive archaeological techniques (aerial survey, analytical field survey, geophysical survey) alongside excavated data. His PhD used aerial survey mapping to examine the interaction of indigenous and Roman societies across a wide area of northern Britain's Roman frontier, investigating whether such large-scale survey data can be integrated with archaeological theory to answer questions around past landscapes and identities.
Ian has previously worked for CIfA, Historic England and within the commercial sector as a specialist in remote-sensed survey techniques, including on several large-area landscape surveys and site-based studies for England's national Aerial Investigation & Mapping Programme in Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumbria, Lancashire and Yorkshire. He has taught at both the Universities of Edinburgh and York, on modules in Roman archaeology from both Britain and the wider Roman Empire, and also on landscape survey and excavation techniques, including York's undergraduate field-school at the Roman sites of Malton and Heslington East.
Ian works for the University of Edinburgh's School of History, Classics and Archaeology as part of the Leverhulme-funded 'Beyond Walls: Reassessing Iron Age and Roman Encounters in Northern Britain' project. In this role, he is responsible for the management, collection and analysis of data pertaining to surveyed and excavated Iron Age settlements and Roman sites in the project area, analysing the relationships between these and the region's landscapes, and is involved in the project's research outputs.
PhD in Archaeology (University of York, 2021)
York Learning & Teaching Award (University of York, 2019)
NVQ Level 3 in Archaeological Practice (Chartered Institute for Archaeologists, 2014)
MA in Landscape Archaeology, with distinction (University of York, 2012)
BA in Archaeology, with first class honours (University of York, 2011)
Responsibilities & affiliations
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (FSAScot)
Associate Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (AFHEA)
Practitioner-Grade Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (PCIfA)
Member of the Landscape Survey Group
I am interested in the study of archaeological landscapes and how we define them, together with the identities of the people occupying and interacting with them. My other main interest is the impact of boundaries, borders and frontiers upon these past peoples and landscapes, and how interactions across such divisions occurred, particularly for the Roman occupation of the northern half of Britain (and its parallels elsewhere around the empire).
The ways in which people perceive themselves and others, and understand and define the world around them, are universally applicable to the past and present, important for understanding regional and other group-affiliated identities and human-environmental interactions into today. Meanwhile, the development of social, political and cultural peripheries has a profound effect on both the people nearby and the landscapes such boundaries are situated in, affecting perceptions of such regions for long periods and providing insight into similar processes and impacts of boundary-making in the modern world. This has further major implications for interpretations and perceptions of sites such as Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall, and the wider surrounding region of northern England / southern Scotland today - long associated with border warfare and ideas of 'marginality'.
In order to approach such large-scale issues, I apply large-area archaeological techniques such as aerial survey, analytical field survey (earthworks) and geophysical survey, alongside site-based and palaeo-environmental data, to holistically investigate past landscapes and the interactions and identities of peoples living within them. This involves use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and use of wider archaeological theory (for instance post-colonial / de-colonial approaches and defining perceptional and other concepts of landscape).
Current research interestsIron Age, Roman and early medieval archaeology of northern Europe; Landscape archaeology; Archaeology of identities; Archaeology of frontiers and borders; Post-colonial and de-colonial theory; Indigenous-Roman interactions in northern England and southern Scotland; Aerial, geophysical, and analytical field surveys; Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Archaeological research and its use for heritage management and public benefit.
In 2022, preliminary presentation of the Leverhulme-funded ‘Beyond Walls’ project and its pilot study attracted widespread media attention, being featured in numerous news outlets world-wide (from CNN to National Geographic, and from the UK to the USA, several countries in Europe and as far as South America and south-east Asia).
‘Beyond Walls: Exploring Roman and Iron Age Encounters in Northern Britain through Archaeology’ web-article on Dig It: Discover Scotland website blog (https://www.digitscotland.com/beyond-walls-exploring-roman-and-iron-age-encounters-in-northern-britain-through-archaeology/), published online on 17th February 2023.
Presentations / Papers / Posters
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Hardwick, I.J., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D. & McDonald, S. (forthcoming) 'Iron Age Settlement Dynamics in the Scottish Southern Uplands'. Paper presented for the AG Eisenzeit des West und Süddeutschen Verbandes für Altertumsforschung [West and South German Association for Iron Age Archaeology] ‘The Alps in the 1st Millennium BC’ Conference. 30th September 2023. Innsbruck.
- Hardwick, I.J., Cowley, D.C., Fernández-Gӧtz, M., McDonald, S. & Hamilton, W.D. (2023) 'Beyond Hadrian’s Wall: New survey approaches to indigenous and Roman-period landscapes in northern England and southern Scotland'. Paper presented for the European Association of Archaeologists 29th ‘EAA Annual Conference’. 2nd September 2023. Belfast.
- McDonald, S., Hamilton, W.D., Hardwick, I.J., Cowley, D.C. & Fernández-Gӧtz, M. (2023) 'Landscape and Settlement “Beyond Walls”: Using archaeological science to explore settlement and land-use dynamics on the Roman Empire’s northern frontier'. Paper presented for the European Association of Archaeologists 29th ‘EAA Annual Conference’. 2nd September 2023. Belfast.
- McDonald, S., Hardwick, I.J., Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C. & Hamilton, W.D. (2023) 'Beyond Walls: New narratives for settlement and land use on the Roman Empire’s northern British frontier'. Paper presented for the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ‘Archaeological Research in Progress Conference 2023’. 27th May 2023. Edinburgh (hybrid).
- McDonald, S., Hardwick, I.J., Hamilton, W.D., Fernández-Gӧtz, M. & Cowley, D.C. (2022) 'Frontier Environments: palaeoenvironmental reconstruction ‘Beyond Walls’'. Paper presented for the ‘Association for Environmental Archaeologists’ Conference. 3rd December 2022. Glasgow.
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D., Hardwick, I.J. & McDonald, S. (2022) 'Cultural Interactions at the Edge of the Empire: A Landscape Archaeology Approach to Iron Age and Roman Encounters in Northern Britain'. Paper presented for the ‘Cultural Interactions and Power in the Atlantic European Landscapes: From the Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages’ Conference. 28th October 2022. Santiago de Compostela (online).
- Hardwick, I.J., Cowley, D.C. & Fernández-Gӧtz, M. (2022) 'Encounters on the edge of the Roman Empire: Investigating landscape, frontier and identity in northern Britannia'. Paper presented for the ‘Aerial Archaeology Research Group 2022’ Conference. 7th October 2022. Online.
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D., Hardwick, I.J. & McDonald, S. (2022) 'Changing landscapes in the northern frontier: Contrasting settlement patterns north and south of Hadrian’s Wall'. Paper presented for the ‘LIMES Congress XXV (Congress on Roman Frontier Studies 2022)’ Conference. 24th August 2022. Nijmegen.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2022) 'Integration, Separation or Somewhere In-Between? Interactions at the edge of Roman and Iron Age worlds in northern Britain, as seen from the air'. Paper presented for the University of Edinburgh Workshop ‘Into the Empire: New Approaches to the Late Iron Age to Early Roman Transition’. 12th April 2022. Edinburgh (online).
- Hardwick, I.J. (2022) 'At the Edge of the World(s): Aerial survey, landscape and identity across frontiers of northern Britain during the Iron Age and Roman periods'. Lecture presented for the ‘University of Edinburgh Archaeology Seminars’ series. 10th March 2022. Edinburgh (online).
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D., McDonald, S. & Hardwick, I.J. (2021) 'Beyond Walls: Introducing New Research on Iron Age and Roman Interactions in Northern Britain'. Paper presented for the Royal Society of Edinburgh Workshop ‘New Research on Iron Age and Roman Scotland’. 7th October 2021. Edinburgh (online).
- Hardwick, I.J. (2020) 'People and Landscape on the Periphery between Two Worlds'. Poster entered into the ‘Humanities Research Centre 2020 PhD Poster Competition’. 29th April 2020. York.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2019) 'Collaboration and Conquest: Landscapes and Identity on the Roman Northern Frontier – Postgraduate Research and Historic England Archive Material'. Poster presented for the ‘CIfA 2019 Archaeology Conference – Values, Benefits and Legacies’. 24th-26th April 2019. Leeds.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2019) 'Pushing the Boundaries of Roman Britain: Landscape, Frontier and Identity in Northern Britannia – A PhD Story'. Research Forum presented to the Department of Archaeology, University of York. 15th February 2019. York.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2018) 'Outposts of Empire, from the Air: Landscape and Identity beyond Hadrian’s Wall'. Poster presented for the International Association of Landscape Archaeology (IALA) 5th ‘Landscape Archaeology Conference’. 17th-20th September 2018. Newcastle & Durham.
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D., Hardwick, I.J. & McDonald, S. (forthcoming) ‘Changing Landscapes on the Northern Frontier: Outline and Preliminary Results of the “Beyond Walls” Project’ in M. Driessen, E. Graafstal, T. Hazenberg, T. Ivleva, C. van Driel-Murray & H. van Enckevort (eds.) Roman Frontier Studies 2022. Proceedings of the XXVth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies. Nijmegen, ***-***.
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Reid, J., Keppie, L. & Hardwick, I.J. (2022) ‘A Battle in the Mists of the Lake District? Ambleside Roman fort under attack’, Current Archaeology, 393. Online [available at: https://the-past.com/feature/a-battle-in-the-mists-of-the-lake-district-ambleside-roman-fort-under-attack/].
- Fernández-Gӧtz, M., Cowley, D.C., Hamilton, W.D., Hardwick, I.J. & McDonald, S. (2022) ‘Project Gallery - Beyond Walls: Reassessing Iron Age and Roman Encounters in Northern Britain’, Antiquity, 96, 388, 1021-1029.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2021) ‘Pushing the Boundaries of Roman Britain’ – Landscape, Frontier and Identity in Northern Britannia. York: PhD Thesis, University of York. Online [available at: https://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/30298].
- Hardwick, I.J. (2021) ‘Book Review - The Archaeology of Roman York. By A. Parker. Amberley Publishing, Stroud, 2019. Pp. 96, illus. Price £14.99. ISBN 9781445686073’, Britannia, 52, 497-498.
- Goodchild, J. & Hardwick, I.J. (2019) ‘Lancashire: The Lower Lune, Lower Wyre and Lower Ribble Environs - Aerial Investigation and Mapping Project’, Historic England Research Report Series 14/2019. Portsmouth: Historic England.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2017) ‘Prehistoric and Romano-British settlement in the Lune Valley, Cumbria: an assessment of recent aerial and field survey’, Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Archaeological & Antiquarian Society, 3rd Series, 17, 23-42.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2017) ‘Cheshire NMP and Lidar Project: Sampling the Peak Fringe, Cheshire Plain and Mersey Valley’, Historic England Research Report Series 68/2017. Swindon: Historic England.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2016) ‘Note 1. Cheshire National Mapping Programme (NMP) and lidar project: sampling the Peak fringe, Cheshire plain and Mersey valley’, Chester Archaeological Society Journal, 86, 131-133.
- Linford, P.K., Payne, A.W., Linford, N.T., Edwards, Z. & Hardwick, I.J. (2014) ‘Ham Hill, Stoke Sub Hamdon, Somerset: Report on Geophysical Surveys, November 2013’, English Heritage Research Report Series 67/2014. Portsmouth: English Heritage.
- Hardwick, I.J. (2014) ‘NAIS: Upland Pilot, Burton-in-Kendal and Dalton, Cumbria and Lancashire: An Archaeological Landscape Investigation’, English Heritage Research Report Series 10/2014. Portsmouth: English Heritage.
- Hardwick, I.J. & Payne, A.W. (2014) ‘Horton Enclosure, Bishops Cannings, Wiltshire: Report on Geophysical Survey, October 2013’, English Heritage Research Report Series 5/2014. Portsmouth: English Heritage.
- Linford, N.T., Linford, P.K, Hardwick, I.J. & Payne, A.W. (2013) ‘Stonesfield Roman Villa, Oxfordshire: Report on Geophysical Surveys, September 2013’, English Heritage Research Report Series 59/2013. Portsmouth: English Heritage.
- Linford, N.T., Linford, P.K, Hardwick, I.J. & Payne, A.W. (2013) ‘Lakes and Dales NAIS, Kitridding Hill, Lupton, Cumbria: Report on Geophysical Survey, July 2013’, English Heritage Research Report Series 56/2013. Portsmouth: English Heritage.
'Beyond Walls: Reassessing Iron Age and Roman Encounters in Northern Britain' (with M. Fernández-Götz, D. Hamilton, D. Cowley & S. McDonald). Funded by the Leverhulme Trust.