Cristina Marinho

Senior Teaching Coordinator (Qualitative Methods)

  • Psychology
  • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences

Contact details



Room G15, Psychology Building

7 George Square, Edinburgh
Post code


  • Office hours: Tuesdays 2-3:30pm.


2012: PhD in Social Psychology, Loughborough University

2005: MSc in Social and Organisational Psychology, ISCTE (University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal)      

2001: Degree in Social and Organizational Psychology ISCTE (University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal)

Undergraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2023/24

Year 1: Social Psychology (Psychology 1B); contribution to Research Methods (Psychology 1B).

Year 2: Contribution to Social Psychology (Psychology 2A); contribution to Doing Psychology  (Psychology 2B).

Year 3:  Qualitative Methods in Psychology (QMiP) (Course Organiser with Dr Rahul Sambaraju ); contribution to Critical Analysis (CA) and Psychology mini-dissertations (supervision).

Year 4: Dissertation in Psychology (supervision); contribution to Psychology Tutorial Course and General Paper in Psychology.

Postgraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2023/24

Qualitative Methodologies in Psychological Research (QMiPR) (Course Organiser)

Problem-based Social Psychology Research (Course Organiser)

Dissertation in Psychology (supervision)

Open to PhD supervision enquiries?


Research summary

My research interests revolve around investigating traditional social psychological topics as discursive actions using a rhetorical discursive psychology approach. Present research interests and collaborative work are on politicians manipulating people and information/data, opposing political manipulation, forms of misrepresenting reality.

Selected publications:

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2024). How can governments be prevented from manipulating statistics about Covid-19? An example from UK politics. In C. Ilie (ed.),  Manufacturing Dissent. Manipulation and counter-manipulation in times of crisis (pp. 186-214). John Benjamins.

Billig, M. & Marinho, C. (2023). Preventing the Political Manipulation of COVID-19 Statistics: the importance of going beyond diplomatic language. Language in Society, 52(5): 733-755. First View online: doi:10.1017/S0047404522000367.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2023). Using Examples to Misrepresent the World. In R. Harris & J. Fahnestock (Eds.), Routledge Handbook on Language and Persuasion (pp.113-128). Routledge.

Widdicombe, S., & Marinho, C. (2021). Challenges in Research on Self-Identity.  In M. Bamberg, C. Demuth & M. Watzlawik (Eds.), Handbook of Identity (pp. 57-76). Cambridge University Press. 

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2020). Metonymy, myth and politicians doing things with words: Examples from the Portuguese celebration of April 25. Pratiques Psychologiques, 26(4), 265-278.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2019). Literal and Metaphorical Silences in Rhetoric: Examples from the Celebration of the 1974 Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament. In A. J. Murray and K. Durrheim (eds), Qualitative studies of silence: The unsaid as social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2017). The politics and rhetoric of commemoration: How the Portuguese Parliament celebrates the 1974 Revolution. London: Bloomsbury (Academic Series).

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2015). Rhetoric and Psychology: ending the dominance of nouns. In J. Martin, J. Sugarman and K. Slaney (eds), The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Science (pp. 117-132). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2014). Manipulating information and manipulating people: examples from the Portuguese parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution. Critical Discourse Studies, 11(2), 158-174.

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2013). The CDS-PP and the Portuguese Parliament’s annual celebration of the 1974 Revolution: ambivalence and avoidance in the construction of the fascist past. In R. Wodak and J. E. Richardson (eds.), Analysing Fascist Discourse: European fascism in talk and text (pp. 146-162). London: Routledge.