Cristina Marinho

Senior Teaching Coordinator

  • Psychology
  • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences

Contact details



Room G15, Psychology Building

7 George Square, Edinburgh
Post code


  • Office hours:
    Tuesday 9-10am
    Please email me, if you are unable to make this slot.

    Qualitative support:
    Semester 1 - Every other Wednesday from 9:30am to 10:30am.
    Semester 2 - Every Thursday from 9.30 am to 10.50am.
    Please book a slot for qualitative support via PPLS Skills Centre (Appointments + Resources; Data Collection and Analysis; Qualitative Research (Psychology)).
    NB: Qualitative research support is for undergraduate and postgraduate students, but priority is given to Year 4 dissertation students.


I joined the Department in September 2019 as a Teaching Fellow.

I received my doctorate in Social Psychology in 2012 from the Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University. Under the supervision of Professor Michael Billig, I investigated the annual celebration of the April Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament using mostly qualitative research methods. 

Prior to that, I undertook a master’s degree in Social Psychology at ISCTE-IUL (Lisbon). There, under the supervision of Professor Maria Benedicta Monteiro, I studied blatant and subtitle forms of prejudice in Portuguese children with experiments. I also worked as a young quantitative researcher in Social Psychology at the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS-University of Lisbon) and CIS-IUL (Lisbon). At ICS, under Professor Jorge Vala's leadership, I investigated political attitudes and infra-humanization in the Portuguese population. I also worked as a University Teacher at Loughborough University, Leicester University and NTIC-Nottingham Trent University. 

Undergraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2022/23

Year 1: Contribution to Doing Psychology (Psychology 1B).

Year 2: Contribution to Social Psychology (Psychology 2A); Doing Psychology  (Psychology 2B).

Year 3: Contribution to Qualitative Methods in Psychology (QMiP), Critical Analysis (CA) and Mini-dissertations.

Year 4: Dissertations in Psychology (supervision); Contribution to Psychology Tutorial Course.

Postgraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2022/23

Qualitative Methodologies in Psychological Research (QMiPR) (Course Organiser)

Dissertations (supervision)

Open to PhD supervision enquiries?


Research summary

My research interests revolve around investigating traditional social psychological topics as discursive actions using a rhetorical/discursive psychology approach.

I have worked and published with Professor Michael Billig (Loughborough University) on the topics of self-persuasion in party politics, misrepresenting reality (with political data and data from the Seduction Community or PUAs), politicians manipulating texts and multi-party audiences, countering political manipulation, politicians remembering and forgetting/repressing the national past, and sexist language habits. I have also worked and published with Dr Sue Widdicombe (The University of Edinburgh) on studying self-identity in Psychology. 

Selected publications:

Billig, M. & Marinho, C. (2022). Preventing the Political Manipulation of COVID-19 Statistics: the importance of going beyond diplomatic language. Language in Society, 1-23 (First View).

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2022). Using Examples to Misrepresent the World. In R. Harris & J. Fahnestock (Eds.), Routledge Handbook on Language and Persuasion (pp.113-128). Routledge.

Widdicombe, S., & Marinho, C. (2021). Challenges in Research on Self-Identity.  In M. Bamberg, C. Demuth & M. Watzlawik (Eds.), Handbook of Identity (pp. 57-76). Cambridge University Press. 

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2020). Metonymy, myth and politicians doing things with words: Examples from the Portuguese celebration of April 25. Pratiques Psychologiques, 26(4), 265-278.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2019). Literal and Metaphorical Silences in Rhetoric: Examples from the Celebration of the 1974 Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament. In A. J. Murray and K. Durrheim (eds), Qualitative studies of silence: The unsaid as social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2017). The politics and rhetoric of commemoration: How the Portuguese Parliament celebrates the 1974 Revolution. London: Bloomsbury (Academic Series).

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2015). Rhetoric and Psychology: ending the dominance of nouns. In J. Martin, J. Sugarman and K. Slaney (eds), The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Science (pp. 117-132). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2014). Manipulating information and manipulating people: examples from the Portuguese parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution. Critical Discourse Studies, 11(2), 158-174.

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2013). The CDS-PP and the Portuguese Parliament’s annual celebration of the 1974 Revolution: ambivalence and avoidance in the construction of the fascist past. In R. Wodak and J. E. Richardson (eds.), Analysing Fascist Discourse: European fascism in talk and text (pp. 146-162). London: Routledge.