Cristina Marinho

Senior Teaching Coordinator (Qualitative Methods)

  • Psychology
  • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences

Contact details



Room G15, Psychology Building

7 George Square, Edinburgh
Post code


  • Office hours: Tuesdays 2-3:30pm.


2012: PhD in Social Psychology, Loughborough University

2005: MSc in Social and Organisational Psychology, ISCTE (University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal)      

2001: Degree in Social and Organizational Psychology ISCTE (University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal)

Undergraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2024/25

Year 1: Social Psychology (Psychology 1B); contribution to Research Methods (Psychology 1B).

Year 2: Contribution to Research Methods (Psychology 2B); contribution to Social Psychology (Psychology 2A), namely with Qualitative Social Psychology Lab.  

Year 3:  Contribution to Qualitative Methods in Psychology (QMiP); contribution to Critical Analysis (CA) and Psychology mini-dissertations (supervision).

Year 4: Dissertation in Psychology (supervision); contribution to Psychology Tutorial Course and General Paper in Psychology.

Postgraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2024/25

Qualitative Methodologies in Psychological Research (QMiPR) (Course Organiser)

Dissertation in Psychology (supervision)

Open to PhD supervision enquiries?


Research summary

My research interests revolve around investigating traditional social psychological topics as discursive actions. Present research interests and collaborative work are on politicians manipulating people and information/data, opposing political manipulation, forms of misrepresenting reality.

Selected publications:


Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (in press). Politicians Manipulating Statistics: How They Do It and How to Stop Them. Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2017). The politics and rhetoric of commemoration: How the Portuguese Parliament celebrates the 1974 Revolution. London: Bloomsbury (Academic Series).

Book chapters

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2024). How can governments be prevented from manipulating statistics about Covid-19? An example from UK politics. In C. Ilie (ed.),  Manufacturing Dissent. Manipulation and counter-manipulation in times of crisis (pp. 186-214). John Benjamins.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2023). Using Examples to Misrepresent the World. In R. Harris & J. Fahnestock (Eds.), Routledge Handbook on Language and Persuasion (pp.113-128). Routledge.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2019). Literal and Metaphorical Silences in Rhetoric: Examples from the Celebration of the 1974 Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament. In A. J. Murray and K. Durrheim (eds), Qualitative studies of silence: The unsaid as social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2015). Rhetoric and Psychology: ending the dominance of nouns. In J. Martin, J. Sugarman and K. Slaney (eds), The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Science (pp. 117-132). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2013). The CDS-PP and the Portuguese Parliament’s annual celebration of the 1974 Revolution: ambivalence and avoidance in the construction of the fascist past. In R. Wodak and J. E. Richardson (eds.), Analysing Fascist Discourse: European fascism in talk and text (pp. 146-162). London: Routledge.

Widdicombe, S., & Marinho, C. (2021). Challenges in Research on Self-Identity.  In M. Bamberg, C. Demuth & M. Watzlawik (Eds.), Handbook of Identity (pp. 57-76). Cambridge University Press. 

Journal articles

Billig, M. & Marinho, C. (2023). Preventing the Political Manipulation of COVID-19 Statistics: the importance of going beyond diplomatic language. Language in Society, 52(5): 733-755. First View online: doi:10.1017/S0047404522000367.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2020). Metonymy, myth and politicians doing things with words: Examples from the Portuguese celebration of April 25. Pratiques Psychologiques, 26(4), 265-278.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2014). Manipulating information and manipulating people: examples from the Portuguese parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution. Critical Discourse Studies, 11(2), 158-174.