Cristina Marinho

Teaching Fellow

  • Psychology
  • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences

Contact details



Room S29, Psychology Building

7 George Square, Edinburgh
Post code


  • Office hours:
    Tuesday from 10am to 12pm


I received my doctorate in Social Psychology from the Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University. Under the supervision of Professor Michael Billig, I investigated the annual celebration of the April Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament mostly using qualitative research methods. 

Previously, I undertook a Master’s Degree in Social Psychology at ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, investigating, under the supervision of Professor Maria Benedicta Monteiro, blatant and subtitle prejudice in children with experiments and worked as a young quantitative researcher in Social Psychology studying political attitudes, infra-humanization, power and intergroup perceptions at the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS-University of Lisbon) and CIS-IUL (Lisbon). I also worked as a University Teacher at Loughborough University, Leicester University and NTIC-Nottingham Trent University. 

Undergraduate teaching

Social Psychology (Year 1) 

Research Methods & Statistics (Year 3) 

Psychology Mini-Dissertation (Year 3) 

Critical Analysis (Year 3)

Psychology Tutorial Course (Year 4) (2018-2019)

Honours Dissertation (Year 4)

Postgraduate teaching

Qualitative Methodologies in Psychological Research

The Social Psychology of Identities


Research summary

I am interested in investigating traditional social psychological topics as discursive actions using a rhetorical/discursive psychology approach. Topics of interest: political ideology/practices, manipulation/persuasion, dilemmas of identity, extreme forms of prejudice/discrimination, rhetorical/discursive psychology.

Professor Michael Billig (Loughborough University) and I have worked on the annual parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution and investigated discursively the topics of self-persuasion in party politics, forms of manipulating texts and multi-party audiences, forms of collective remembering and collective forgetting/repression, and, sexist language habits.


Selected publications:

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2019). Literal and Metaphorical Silences in Rhetoric: Examples from the Celebration of the 1974 Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament. In A. J. Murray and K. Durrheim (eds), Qualitative studies of silence: The unsaid as social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2017). The politics and rhetoric of commemoration: How the Portuguese Parliament celebrates the 1974 Revolution. London: Bloomsbury (Academic Series).

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2015). Rhetoric and Psychology: ending the dominance of nouns. In J. Martin, J. Sugarman and K. Slaney (eds), The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Science (pp. 117-132). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2014). Manipulating information and manipulating people: examples from the Portuguese parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution. Critical Discourse Studies, 11(2), 158-174.

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2013). The CDS-PP and the Portuguese Parliament’s annual celebration of the 1974 Revolution: ambivalence and avoidance in the construction of the fascist past. In R. Wodak and J. E. Richardson (eds.), Analysing Fascist Discourse: European fascism in talk and text (pp. 146-162). London: Routledge.