Cristina Marinho

Senior Teaching Coordinator

  • Psychology
  • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences

Contact details



Room F.12, Psychology Building

7 George Square, Edinburgh
Post code


  • Office hours:
    Wednesday from 1pm to 2pm
    Please email me, if you are unable to make this slot.

    Qualitative support:
    Semester 1 - Every other Thursday from 3pm to 4pm.
    Semester 2 - Every Thursday from 9.30 am to 11.00am.
    Please email me to book a slot for qualitative support.
    NB: Qualitative research support is for undergraduate and postgraduate students, but priority is given to Year 4 dissertation students.


I received my doctorate in Social Psychology in 2012 from the Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University. Under the supervision of Professor Michael Billig, I investigated the annual celebration of the April Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament using mostly qualitative research methods. 

Before that, I undertook a master’s degree in Social Psychology at ISCTE-IUL (Lisbon). There, under the supervision of Professor Maria Benedicta Monteiro, I studied blatant and subtitle forms of prejudice in Portuguese children with experiments. I also worked as a young quantitative researcher in Social Psychology at the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS-University of Lisbon) and CIS-IUL (Lisbon). For example, at ICS, under Professor Jorge Vala's lead, I investigated political attitudes and infra-humanization in the Portuguese population. I also worked as a University Teacher at Loughborough University, Leicester University and NTIC-Nottingham Trent University. 

Undergraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2021/22

Year 1: Social Psychology (Year 1); Psychology 1B - Doing Psychology (with Dr Pete Lamont)

Year 2: Psychology 2B - Doing Psychology  

Year 3: Contribution to Qualitative Methods in Psychology; Critical Analysis (CA)

Year 4: Dissertations in Psychology (supervision); Psychology Tutorial Course

Postgraduate teaching

Academic Year of 2021/22

Qualitative Methodologies in Psychological Research (QMiPR)

Dissertations (supervision)



Open to PhD supervision enquiries?


Research summary

My research interests revolve around investigating traditional social psychological topics as discursive actions using a rhetorical/discursive psychology approach. Topics of interest: political ideology/practices, manipulation/persuasion, dilemmas of identity, extreme forms of prejudice/discrimination, rhetorical/discursive psychology.

I have worked with Professor Michael Billig (Loughborough University) on different types of political data, and investigated discursively the topics of self-persuasion in party politics, misrepresenting reality (with data also from the Seduction Community or PUAs), forms of manipulating texts and multi-party audiences, forms of collective remembering and collective forgetting/repression, and sexist language habits. I have also worked with Dr Sue Widdicombe on studying self-identity in Psychology. 


Selected publications:

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (in press). Using Examples to Misrepresent the World. In R. Harris & J. Fahnestock (Eds.), Routledge Handbook on Language and Persuasion (pp.*-*). Routledge.

Widdicombe, S., & Marinho, C. (2021). Challenges in Research on Self-Identity.  In M. Bamberg, C. Demuth & M. Watzlawik (Eds.), Handbook of Identity (pp. 57-76). Cambridge University Press. 

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2020). Metonymy, myth and politicians doing things with words: Examples from the Portuguese celebration of April 25. Pratiques Psychologiques, 26(4), 265-278.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2019). Literal and Metaphorical Silences in Rhetoric: Examples from the Celebration of the 1974 Revolution in the Portuguese Parliament. In A. J. Murray and K. Durrheim (eds), Qualitative studies of silence: The unsaid as social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2017). The politics and rhetoric of commemoration: How the Portuguese Parliament celebrates the 1974 Revolution. London: Bloomsbury (Academic Series).

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2015). Rhetoric and Psychology: ending the dominance of nouns. In J. Martin, J. Sugarman and K. Slaney (eds), The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Science (pp. 117-132). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Billig, M., & Marinho, C. (2014). Manipulating information and manipulating people: examples from the Portuguese parliamentary celebration of the April Revolution. Critical Discourse Studies, 11(2), 158-174.

Marinho, C., & Billig, M. (2013). The CDS-PP and the Portuguese Parliament’s annual celebration of the 1974 Revolution: ambivalence and avoidance in the construction of the fascist past. In R. Wodak and J. E. Richardson (eds.), Analysing Fascist Discourse: European fascism in talk and text (pp. 146-162). London: Routledge.