Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences
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Prof Peter Kind

The Kind laboratory examines the cellular dysfunction associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related monogenic forms of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

Professor Peter Kind

Professor of Developmental Neuroscience

  • Hugh Robson Building
  • 15 George Square
  • Edinburgh EH8 9XD

Contact details

Personal profile

Professor Kind is Director of the Patrick Wild Centre for Research into Autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and Intellectual Disability and Professor of Developmental Neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh. He is also Director of the Simons Initiative for the Developing Brain and Associate Director at the Centre for Brain Development and Repair (CBDR) at the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Instem), Bangalore, India. Professor Kind completed his postdoctoral training with Professor Colin Blakemore at Oxford University and Professor Susan Hockfield at Yale University. Professor Kind received his PhD from Oxford University in 1993.


The laboratory focuses on synaptic function, from the physiological and morphological alterations to the behavioural phenotypes associated with rodent models of the Autisms and Intellectual Disabilities. We also test the hypothesis that distinct genetic causes of ASDs/IDs convergence on common biochemical and cellular pathologies associated that may be amenable to similar therapeutic approaches.

Our mission is to understand the neurological basis of and to test new therapies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS) and intellectual disabilities (ID)— from cell to synapse, from circuit to behaviour. To achieve this, we use an integrated research programme that uses three linked model systems: mouse, rat and human.

The Goals of the Centre are:

  • To use understanding of the genetic basis of ASD/ID as a starting point for modeling the cellular changes that underlie these complex disorders.
  • To develop and test medicines and often treatments for these disorders.
  • To engage those affected by these conditions as well as their families and those who support them, to better understand their difficulties.


Team members

  • Daisy Arkell (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Natasha Anstey (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Shinjini Basu (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Sam Booker (Postdoctoral Fellow) 
  • Ingrid Buller (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Owen Dando (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Anjanette Harris (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Xin He (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Felicity Inkpen (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Jorge Maicas Royo (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Joanna Smith (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Sally Till (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Anna Toft (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Thomas Watson (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Raven Hickson (PhD Student)
  • Mary O'Keeffe (PhD Student)
  • Vanesa Salazar Sanchez  (PhD Student)
  • Noah Stypidou (PhD Student)
  • Lynsey Dunsmore (Animal Colony Manager)
  • Karen Biggar (PA)
  • Jane Wright (SIDB Centre Administrator)
  • Nicole Cuthbert (Research Technichian)  
  • Dan Giffney (Research Technichian)  
  • Will Farnworth- Rowson (Research Technichian)  
  • Brittany Prokop (Research Technichian)  
  • Jess Rodda (Research Technichian)  

Former lab members

  • Alina Altonen
  • Antonios Asiminas 
  • Stephanie Barnes
  • Laura Butterworth
  • Mark Barnett
  • Chih-Yuan Chiang
  • Alex Crocker-Buque
  • Elizabeth Davenport
  • Ruth Deighton
  • Aleks Domanski
  • Olivia Hamilton
  • Mark Hillen
  • Adam Jackson
  • Owain James
  • Danai Katsanevaki
  • Alla Katsnelson
  • Pradeep Krishnamurthy
  • Aoife McMahon
  • Lindsay Mizen
  • Tim O’Leary
  • Anne Petrie
  • Nimra Rasheed 
  • Beverly Roberts
  • Kapil Saxena
  • Laura Simoes De Oliveira
  • Alison Thomson
  • Lisa Thow 
  • Tania Vitalis



Bonnycastle K, Kind PC, Cousin MA (2020). FMRP sustains presynaptic function via control of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis. bioRxiv 2020.09.10.291062; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.10.291

Kozic Z, Booker SA, Dando OR, Hardingham G, Kind PC. (2020)  LAB-AID (Laboratory Automated Interrogation of Data): an interactive web application for visualization of multi-level data from biological experiments. bioRxiv 763318; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/763318

Zoupi L, Booker SA, Eigel D, Werner C, Kind PC, Spires-Jones TL, Newland B, Williams AC, (2020) Demyelination induces selective vulnerability of inhibitory networks in multiple sclerosis. bioRxiv 2020.09.17.302042; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.17.302042

Anstey NJ, Kapgal V, Tiwari S, Watson TC, Toft AKH, Dando OR, Inkpen FH, Baxter PS, Kozić Z, Jackson AD, He X, Nawaz MS, Kayenaat A, Bhattacharya A, Wyllie DJA, Chattarji S, Wood ER, Hardt O, Kind PC. (2020). Imbalance of flight-freeze responses and their cellular correlates in the Nlgn3-/y rat model of autism. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.08.27.267880

Katsanevaki D, Till SM, Buller-Peralta I, Watson TC, Nawaz MS, Arkell D, S. Tiwari, V. Kapgal, Biswal S, Smith  JAB, Anstey NJ, Mizen L, Perentos N, Jones MW, Cousin MA, Chattarji S, A. Gonzalez-Sulser A, O. Hardt O, ER. Wood ER, PC. Kind PC. (2020). Heterozygous deletion of SYNGAP enzymatic domains in rats causes selective learning, social and seizure phenotypes. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.10.14.339192

Booker SA, Simões de Oliveira L, Anstey NJ, Kozic Z, Dando OR, Jackson AD, Baxter PS, Isom LL, Sherman DL, Hardingham GE, Brophy PJ, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. Input-Output Relationship of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Reveals Intact Homeostatic Mechanisms in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Cell Rep (2020) 10.1016 PMID: 32783927

Das Sharma S, Pal R, Reddy BK, Selvaraj BT, Raj N, Samaga KK, Srinivasan DJ, Ornelas L, Sareen D, Livesey MR, Bassell GJ, Svendsen CN, Kind PC, Chandran S, Chattarji S, Wyllie DJA. Cortical neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells lacking FMRP display altered spontaneous firing patterns. Mol Autism (2020) 10.1186 PMID: 32560741 

Benke TA, Kind PC. Proof-of-concept for a gene replacement approach to CDKL5 deficiency disorder. Brain (2020) 10.1093 PMID: 32203572

Mastro TL, Preza A, Basu S, Chattarji S, Till SM, Kind PC, Kennedy MB. A sex difference in the response of the rodent postsynaptic density to synGAP haploinsufficiency. eLife (2020) 10.7554 PMID: 31939740 

Booker, SA, Domanski APF, Dandon O, Jackson AD, Isaac JTR, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. Altered dendritic spine function and integration in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Nat Commun PMID 31645626. (2019)

Domanski APF, Booker, SA, Wyllie DJA, Isaac JTR, Kind PC. Cellular and synaptic phenotypes lead to disrupted information processing in Fmr1-KO mouse layer 4 barrel cortex. Nat Commun PMID 31645553. (2019)

Currie SP, Luz LL, Booker SA, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC, Daw MI. Reduced local input to fast-spiking interneurons in the somatosensory cortex in the GABA y2 R43Q mouse model of absence epilepsy. Eplilepsia PMID 28195311. (2017).

Booker SA, Campbell GR, Mysiak KS, Brophy PJ, Kind PC, Mahad DJ, Wyllie DJ. Loss of protohaem IX farnesyltransferase in mature dentate granule cells impairs short-term facilitation at mossy fibre to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. J Physiol. 2017 Mar 15; 595(6):2147-2160. Doi: 10.1113/JP273581.PMID:28083896 (2017)

Qiu J, McQueen J, Bilican B, Dando O, Magnani D, Punovuori K, Selvaraj BT, Livesey M, Haghi G, Heron S, Burr K, Patani R, Rajan R, Sheppard O, Kind PC, Simpson I, Tybulewicz VLJ, Wyllie DJA, Fisher EMC, Lowell S, Chandran S, Hardingham GE. Evidence for evolutionary divergence of activity-dependant gene expression in developing neurons. (2016) 10.7554/elife.20337. (2017).

Crocker-Buque A, Currie SP, Luz LL, Grant SG, Duffy KR, Kind PC, Daw MI. Altered thalamocortical development in the SAP102 knockout model of intellectual disability. Hum Mol Genet. (2016) PMID: 27466188. (2016).

Hector RD, Dando O, Ritakari TE, Kind PC, Bailey ME, Cobb SR. Characterisation of the CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in rat. Plos One e: 0157758. (2017).

Hector RD, Dando O, Landsberger N, Kilstrup-Nielsen C, Kind PC, Bailey ME, Cobb SR. Characterisation of the CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in Human and Mouse. PloS One; 11(6); e0157758. (2016).

Markus NM, Hasel P, Qui J, Bell KF, Heron S, Kind PC, Dando O, Simpson TI, Hardingham GE. Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype and Ca2+ Signalling. PloS One 11 (2):e0148164. (2016).

Livesey MR, Magnani D, Cleary EM, Vasistha NA, James OT, Selvaraj BT, Burr K, Story D, Shaw CE, Kind PC, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Chandran S, Maturation and electrophysiological properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes. Stem Cells 34(4):1040-53. (2016).

Barnes SA, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA. Convergence of hippocampal pathophysiology in Syngap +/- and Fmr1 -/y mice, J Neurosci. 35; 15073-15081. (2015).

Till SM, Kind PC. Conserved hippocampal cellular pathophysiology but distinct behavioural deficits in a new rat model of FXS. Hum Mol Genet 24.5977-8 (2015).

James OT, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA. Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptor subunit composition in human pluripotent stem cell-derived excitatory cortical neurons. JPhysiol. 592(Pt 19) 4353-63. (2015).

Crocker-Buque A, Brown SM, Kind PC, Isaac JT, Daw MI. Experience-Dependant layer-specific development of divergent Thalamocortical connectivity. Cereb. Cortex Mar 7. (2014).

Wijetunge L, Angibaud J, Frick A Kind PC, Nagerl UV, Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy reveals nanoscale defects in the developmental trajectory of dendritic spine morphogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 34:6405-6412 (2014).

Filis P, Kind PC, Spears N. Implantation failure in mice with a disruption in Phospholipase C beta 1 gene: lack of embryonic attachment, aberrant steroid hormone signalling and defective endocannabinoid metabolism. Mol Hum Reprod. PMID 23295235. (2013)

Wijetunge L, Chattarji S, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC, fragile X syndrome from targets to treatment. Neuropharmacology (in press) (2012).

Osterweil EK, Kind PC, Bear MF. Lifting the mood on treating fragile X. Biol Psyc 1; 72(11):895-7. (2012).

Henderson C, Wijetunge L, Kinoshita MN, Shumway M, Postma FR, Brynczka C, Hammond RS, Rush, RS, Thomas A, Paylor R, Warren ST, Vanderklish PW, Kind PC, Carpenter RL, Dear MF, Healy AM. Reversal of disease-related pathologies in the Fragile X mouse model by selective activation of GABA-B receptors with Arbaclofen. Sci Transl Med. 4; 152ra128. (2012).

McMahon AC, Barnett MW, O’Leary TS, Stoney PN, Collins MO, Papadia S, Choudhary JS, Komiyama NH, Grant SG, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. Activity Dependant alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing enable SynGAP isoforms to exert opposing effects on synaptic strength. Nature comms. 3:900 (2012).

Martel M-A, Ryan T, Bell KF, Fowler JH, McMahon A, Al-Mubrak B, Komiyama NH, Horsburgh K, Kind PC, Grant SG Wyllie DJA, Hardingham GE. The subtype of GluN2 C-terminal domain determines the response to excitotoxic insults. Neuron 74:543-556 (2012).

Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Beaver CJ, Crocker-Buque A, Kelly GM, Matthews RT, Mitchell DE. The development and activity-dependant expression of aggrecan in the cat visual cortex. Cereb Cortex