Cost-efficient analysis helps breed disease-resistant fish
Genetic technique makes breeding healthy animals more accessible to small and medium-scale fish farming producers.
A cost-effective method for breeding rainbow trout to be resistant to a common bacterial infection has been developed by scientists.
Researchers applied a novel analysis strategy, based on a relatively small number of variations within DNA, to a popular European farmed fish. This enabled the team to identify fish that are naturally resistant to the disease, and guide breeding for healthier animals.
The team, from the Roslin Institute, in collaboration with the Natural Resources Institute of Finland, found that their approach using a relatively low number of variations, or genome markers, was as reliable as outcomes based on large sets of markers.
Sidestepping the financial burden of obtaining large sets of markers allows breeders to adopt a cost-effective, yet equally feasible, route to leverage genomic selection for breeding, making it more accessible to small fish producers.
This approach could be extended to target other desirable traits, such as growth rate, resistance to other diseases or tolerance to environmental changes, presenting an avenue for comprehensive, accelerated trait improvement in farmed fish species, the team suggests.
Researchers focused their study on resistance to a bacteria that causes columnaris, a disease affecting farmed rainbow trout.
Their findings could help alleviate growing concern over the infection, as rising environmental temperatures linked to global warming provide a favourable environment for its proliferation.
Findings from the study suggest that analysing 300 genetic variants combined with computer modelling was as effective as using up to 28,000 genetic variants, with significantly lower costs.
This research was published in Genetics Selection Evolution, carried out in collaboration with commercial partner Benchmark Genetics and funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
Analysing smaller sets of markers could be cheaper than applying more complex genomic selection methods, and more effective than traditional selective breeding without the use of technology. The cost-effective method we tested presents an avenue for comprehensive, accelerated trait improvement in aquaculture
** The Roslin Institute receives strategic investment funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and it is part of the University of Edinburgh’s Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies. **