Michael Allerhand


  • Statistical Consultancy Unit
  • School of Mathematics

Contact details



School of Mathmatics

JCMB, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh
Post code


Statistician and programmer

  • Statistical consultancy
  • Expert R programmer.


1979-1982       Computer Systems Engineering, (BSc. University of Warwick).

1982-1985       Speech pattern recognition, (PhD. University of Cambridge).

1985-1989       Postdoctoral Research Fellowships (Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge):

                            1. SERC Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship.

                            2. Darwin College (Cambridge) Research Fellowship.

                            3. Automatic Speech Recognition (SERC/Alvey Project).

1989-1996       Research grants (MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge):      

                            1. Auditory Modelling (MRC).

                           2. Auditory Modelling (Leverhulme Trust).

1996-1998      Head of Computing, (Cambridge Centre for Sixth Form Studies).

1998-2009      Research and Statistical Computing Officer, (School of PPLS, University of Edinburgh).

2009-2018      Statistician, (Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh).

2018-                Statistical Consultant, (School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh).


I am a statistician with a background in statistical modelling, machine learning, statistical programming, and numerical analysis.  I have skills in data visualization, data reduction, feature engineering, statistical modelling, and machine learning for inference, prediction, and classification.

I am an expert R programmer with many years' experience applying these methods to a wide variety of data. I have substantial experience of consultancy, collaboration, and teaching, with excellent written and verbal communication skills, and the ability to explain complicated technical material in simple terms.



Allerhand M. (2011) A Tiny Handbook of R. Springer Briefs in Statistics. Springer 2011.

Allerhand M. (1987) Knowledge-Based Speech Pattern Recognition. Macmillan 1987.



Simon R. Cox, Mike Allerhand, Roy Sherwood, Joan Abbott, John M. Starr, Mark E. Bastin, Joann M. Wardlaw, Ian J. Deary. (2017). Longitudinal serum S100b and brain ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. In submission.

Mike Allerhand, Roger Watson, Ian Deary (2017). Scalability and Item Bias by Intelligence in the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale. In submission.

Mottus, R., Allerhand, M. (2017) Why do traits come together? The underlying trait and network approaches. In: Zeigler-Hill, V. & Shackelford, T. (eds.) 2017 SAGE Handbook of Personality and Individual Differences: The science of personality and individual differences. London: SAGE, Vol. 1

MacPherson, S. E., Healy, C., Allerhand, M., Spano, B., Tudor-Sfetea, C., White, M., Smirni, D., Shallice, T., Chan, E., Bozzali, M. & Cipolotti, L. (2017) Cognitive reserve and cognitive performance of patients with focal frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia. 96, p.19-28

Maria del C. Valdés Hernández, Janet Kyle, Julia Allan, Michael Allerhand, Heather Clark, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Natalie A. Royle, Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Janie Corley, Mark E. Bastin, John M. Starr, Joanna M. Wardlaw, Ian J. Deary, Emilie Combet. (2017) Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people. Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. (Accepted for publication).

Erika J Laukka, Dominika Dykiert, Mike Allerhand, John M Starr, Ian J Deary. (2017)

Effects of between-person differences and within-person fluctuations in symptoms of anxiety and depression on older-age cognitive performance. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291717002896 (E-pub ahead of print).

Cameron Green, Kirsty Hendry, Elizabeth S. Wilson, Timothy Walsh, Mike Allerhand, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Zoë Tieges. (2017). A Novel Computerized Test for Detecting and Monitoring Visual Attentional Deficits and Delirium in the ICU. Critical Care Medicine. (Accepted for publication).

Philip Wilson, Louise Marryat, Michael Allerhand, Susan Hussey, James Coyne. (2017).

Predictors of published effect sizes in Triple P parenting programme trials. BMC Medical Research Methodology. (In review).

Rene Mottus, Mike Allerhand, Wendy Johnson. (2017). A conceptual and mathematical framework for building models of person-situation transactions. In: Oxford Handbook of Psychological Situations. John Rauthmann, David Funder, Ryne Sherman (Eds). Oxford University Press. (Accepted for publication).


Wardlaw, J., Allerhand, M., Eadie, E., Thomas, A., Corley, J., Pattie, A., Taylor, A., Shenkin, S., Cox, S., Gow, A., Starr, J. & Deary, I. (2016). Carotid disease at age 73 and cognitive change from age 70 to 76 years. A longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. doi: 10.1177/0271678X16683693 (E-pub ahead of print)

Cox, S. R., Bak, T. H., Allerhand, M., Redmond, P., Starr, J. M., Deary, I. J. & MacPherson, S. E. (2016). Bilingualism, social cognition and executive functions: A tale of chickens and eggs. Neuropsychologia. 91, p. 299-306

Valdes Hernandez, M., Allerhand, M., Glatz, A., Clayson, L., Munoz-Maniega, S., Gow, A., Royle, N., Bastin, M., Starr, J., Deary, I. & Wardlaw, J. (2016). Do white matter hyperintensities mediate the association between brain iron deposition and cognitive abilities in older people? European Journal of Neurology. 23, p. 1202-1209

Chloe Fawns-Ritchie, Michael Allerhand, Beverly A Roberts, Catharine R Gale, Breda Cullen, Barbara I Nicholl, Andrew M McIntosh, John Gallacher, Donald M Lyall, Daniel F Mackay, Daniel Martin, Daniel J Smith, Jason M R Gill, Jonathan J Evans, Jill P Pell, Ian J Deary. (in review). Type 2 diabetes, ethnicity and processing speed: A cross-sectional examination of reaction time in UK Biobank participants. BMJ Open.

Lyall, D. M., Cullen, B., Allerhand, M., Smith, D. J., Mackay, D., Evans, J., Anderson, J., Fawns-Ritchie, C., McIntosh, A. M., Deary, I. J. & Pell, J. P. (2016). Cognitive Test Scores in UK Biobank: Data Reduction in 480,416 Participants and Longitudinal Stability in 20,346 Participants. PLoS One. 11, 4, p. e0154222


Zaninotto, P., Batty, D., Allerhand, M., Deary , I. (in review). Trajectories in domains of cognitive function in a general population of older adults: 8 years of follow-up of participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences.

Rene Mottus, Michael Allerhand, Lars Penke, Aja Louise Murray, Tom Booth. (in review).

A Conceptual and Mathematical Language for Building Dynamic Personality Models: The Network-Space Framework. Psychological Review.

Maria Valdez, Stuart Ritchie, Andreas Glatz, Michael Allerhand, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alan J Gow, Natalie A Royle, Mark E Bastin, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Joanna M Wardlaw. (in review). Brain iron deposits and cognitive change across the lifespan. Neurobiology of Aging.


Allerhand, M., Gale, C. R., Deary, I, J. (2014). The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and positive wellbeing in older people: a prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychology and Aging. 29(2), 306-318. doi:10.1037/a0036551.

Joanna M. Wardlaw, Michael Allerhand, Fergus Doubal, Maria C Valdes Hernandez, Zoe

Morris, Alan Gow, Mark E Bastin, John M Starr, Martin Dennis, and Ian Deary. (2014). Vascular risk factors, large artery atheroma and brain white matter hyperintensities. Neurology. 15;82(15):1331-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000312.

Shenkin S. D., Laidlaw K., Allerhand M., Mead G. E., Starr J. M., Deary I. J., (2014). Life course influences of physical and cognitive function and personality on Attitudes to Aging in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. International Psychogeriatrics. 26,9: 1417-1430.

Bak T. H., Nissan J., Allerhand M., Deary I. J. (2014). Does Bilingualism Influence Cognitive Aging? Annals of Neurology. Volume 75, Issue 6, 959–963.

Nathan A Bihlmeyer (et.al). (2014) Genetic Diversity is a Predictor of Mortality in Humans.

BMC Genetics. 15:159  doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0159-7.

Graveling A., Noyes K., Allerhand M., Wright R., Bath L., Deary I. J., Frier B. (2014). Prevalence of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia and identification of predictive symptoms in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes. 15, 206–213. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12077.

Catharine R Gale, Michael Allerhand, Avan Aihie Sayer, Cyrus Cooper, Ian J Deary. (2014). The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and walking speed: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age. 36(4):9682. doi: 10.1007/s11357-014-9682-8.

Cox SR, Bastin ME, Ferguson KJ, Allerhand M, Royle NA, Munoz Maniega S, Starr JM, Deary IJ, Wardlaw JM and MacPherson SE (under revision). Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI. Cortex.


Bartholomew D. J, Allerhand M., Deary I. J., (2013). Measuring mental capacity: Thomson’s bonds model and Spearman’s g-model compared. Intelligence. 41:222-233.

Dahl A. K., Allerhand M., Starr J. M., Deary I. J. Acceptance of Bodily Appearance in Old and Old-old Age - Prevalence and Predictors. Health Psychology.

Tang W., (et. al). Genome-Wide Association Studies of Longitudinal Change in Adult Lung Function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Valdes M., (et. al). Iron deposition in the brain is associated with declining cognition and increasing white matter damage in older subjects. European Stroke Conference.


Gale, C. R., Allerhand, M., Deary, I. J. (2012). Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.  Psychological Medicine. 42 2057-2063.


Allerhand M, Ooi ET, Starr RJ, Alcorn M, Penke L, Drost E, MacNee W, Deary IJ, Starr JM (2011). Skin ageing and oxidative stress in a narrow-age cohort of older adults. European Geriatric Medicine 2 140-144.

Hall RJ, Allerhand M, MacLullich AMJ (2011) Validity of an objective test of sustained visual attention with distractors in detecting delirium. European Delirium Association 5th Scientific Congress on Delirium, Amsterdam 11/11/10 and American Delirium Society inaugural conference, Indianapolis, 5-7 June 2011

Hall RJ, Allerhand M, MacLullich AMJ (2011) A new scale for measuring alertness in delirium: the Observational Scale of Level of Alertness (OSLA). European Delirium Association 5th Scientific Congress on Delirium, Amsterdam 11/11/10 and American Delirium Society inaugural conference, Indianapolis, 5-7 June 2011

Ross D. Henderson, Michael Allerhand, Niall Patton, Alison Pattie, Alan J. Gow, Baljean Dhillon, John M. Starr, Ian J. Deary (2011) Vision and intelligence at age 83 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. Intelligence 39 (2011) 148-154.

Bedford, A., Lukic, G., Allerhand, M., & Deary, I. J. (In press). MASQ anxiety items in an adult British clinical sample: one scale or two? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy.

Coltman, R., Spain, A., Tsenkina, Y., Fowler, J. H., Smith, J., Scullion, G., Allerhand, M., Scott, F., Kalaria, R. N., Ihara, M., Daumas, S., Deary, I. J., Wood, E., McCulloch, J., Horsburgh, K. (2011). Selective white matter pathology induces a specific impairment in spatial working memory. Neurobiology of Aging. 32(12):2324.e7-12.


Geddes, J., Ratcliff, R., Allerhand, M., Childers, R., Wright, R. J., Frier, B. M., & Deary, I. J. (2010). Modeling the effects of hypoglycemia on a two-choice task in adult humans. Neuropsychology, 24, 652-660.

Der, G., Allerhand, M. Starr, J. M., Hofer, S. M., & Deary, I. J. (2010). Age related changes in memory and fluid reasoning in a sample of healthy old people. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 17, 55-70.

Della Sala, S., Cocchini, G., Logie, R.H., Allerhand, M. & MacPherson, S.E. (2010).  Dual task during encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in Alzheimer disease.  Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 19, 503-515.

Gale, C. R., Allerhand, M., Sayer, A. A., Cooper, C., Dennison, E. M., Starr, J. M., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Gallacher, J. E., Kuh, D., Deary, I. J., and the HALCyon Study Team. (2010). The structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in four cohorts of community-based, healthy older people: the HALCyon Programme. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 559-571.

Della Sala, S., Foley, J.A., Beschin, N., Allerhand, M., Logie, R.H. (2010) Assessing Dual-Task Performance Using a Paper-and-Pencil Test: Normative Data. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 25, 410–419.

R.F. Deighton1, J. McCulloch, T. Le Bihan, L. Kerr, J. Kemp, M. Allerhand, C. Smith and I.R. Whittle. (2010) Network analysis enhances interpretation of proteomic data from induced apoptosis. Proteomics, 10(6) 1307-1315.


Deary, I. J., Allerhand, M., & Der, G. (2009). Smarter in middle age, faster in old age: a cross-lagged panel analysis of reaction time and cognitive ability over 13 years in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychology and Aging, 24, 40-47.

Luciano, M., Gow, A. J., Harris, S. E., Hayward, C., Allerhand, M., Starr, J. M., Visscher, P. M., & Deary, I. J. (2009). Cognitive ability at age 11 and 70 years, information processing speed, and APOE variation: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Psychology and Aging, 24, 129-138.

Taylor, M. D., Whiteman, M. C., Fowkes, F. G. R., Lee, A. J., Allerhand, M., & Deary, I. J. (2009). Five factor model personality traits and all-cause mortality in the Edinburgh Artery Study cohort. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 631-641.


Allerhand M., Patterson R. (1996) Vocal agitation as a predictor of emotion and stress. Proceeding of 82nd AGARD AMP meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1996.

Patterson R., Allerhand M., Giguere C., Datta J., Akeroyd M. (1995) The auditory image model and psychophysical decision statistics. British Society of Audiology, Oxford, 1995.

Allerhand M., Patterson R., Datta J. (1995) Investigation of temporal asymmetry in octave judgements. British Society of Audiology, Oxford, 1995.

Patterson R., Allerhand M., Giguere C. (1995) Time-domain modeling of peripheral auditory processing: a modular architecture and a software platform. J. Acoustical Society of America. 1995.

Allerhand M., Patterson R., (1994) Vocal agitation as a predictor of emotion and stress. AAM HAP Research Report.

Patterson R., Anderson T., Allerhand M. (1994) The auditory image model as a preprocessor for spoken language. Proc third ICSLP, Yokohama, Japan, 1395--1398.

Patterson R., Milroy R., Allerhand M. (1993) What is the octave of a harmonically rich note? Proc 2nd Int. Conf. on Music and the Cognitive Sciences. Harwood, Switzerland. 69--81.

Patterson R., Allerhand M., Holdsworth J. (1993) Auditory representations of speech sounds. In: Visual representations of speech sounds. Cooke M., Beet S., Crawford M. (Eds), J. Wiley.

Allerhand M., Butterfield S., Cutler A., Patterson R. (1992) Assessment of relative syllable strength via an auditory model. Proc. Inst. Acoustics, Vol.14, Part 6, pp297--304.

Allerhand M., Patterson R. (1992) Correlograms and auditory images. Proc. Inst. Acoustics, Vol.14, Part 6, pp281--288.

Patterson R., Robinson K., Holdsworth J., McKeown D., Zhang C., Allerhand M. (1992) Complex sounds and auditory images. In: Auditory physiology and perception. Cazals Y., Demany L., Horner K. (Eds). Pergamon, Oxford.

Allerhand M., Patterson R., Robinson K., Rice P. (1991) Application of the SVOS Algorithm. Research Report V, MOD PE SLS/42B/663, August 1991.

Patterson R., Holdsworth J., Allerhand M. (1991) Auditory models as preprocessors for speech recognition. The auditory processing of speech: from the auditory periphery to words. Schouten M.E.H. (Ed). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin. 67--83.

Patterson R., Allerhand M., Holdsworth J., Rice P. (1990)  Optimization of the SVOS algorithm. Spiral VOS Interim Report IV February 1990.

Patterson R., Milroy R., Allerhand M. (1990) What is the octave of a harmonically rich note? Proc Music and the Cognitive Sciences, Cambridge, England, Sept, 1990.

Allerhand M. (1988) Preliminary Results for Binary Tree Acoustic-phonetic Classifier. Working Paper, Alvey Project MMI/069 February 1988.

Allerhand M. (1987) Knowledge-Based Speech Pattern Recognition. Macmillan 1987.

Allerhand M. (1987) Hybrid Classifier. Advanced Speech Recognition Progress Report, Alvey Project MMI/069 May 1987.

Allerhand M. (1987) Distinctive Feature Hybrid Classifier. Advanced Speech Recognition Progress Report, Alvey Project MMI/069 October 1987.

Allerhand M. (1986) Hybrid Classifier. Advanced Speech Recognition Progress Report, Alvey Project MMI/069 December 1986.

Allerhand M., Fallside F. (1986) A Hybrid Recogniser for Speech Patterns. ICASSP-86 (Tokyo) p1213-1216.

Allerhand M. (1985) Some Notes on Structure. Working Paper 6, Alvey Project  MMI/069, November 1985.

Allerhand M., Fallside F., Freij G. (1985) A Proposed Research Structure for Automatic Speech Recognition Project.  Working Paper 8, Alvey Project MMI/069, November 1985.

Allerhand M., Fallside F. (1983) An Experimental, Expert Systems, Constrained Recogniser using Feature Durations. Speech Communication 1.






  • First degree: BSc Computer Systems Engineering (Warwick).
  • Second degree: PhD Computer Speech Recognition (Cantab).
  • Darwin College (Cambridge) research fellowship, SERC post-doctoral research fellowship, and several rounds of research grants.
  • Several years of programme development and research at MRC Applied Psychology Unit (Cambridge).