College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine

Study highlights how superbug spreads

Hospitals in large cities act as breeding grounds for the superbug MRSA prior to it spreading to smaller hospitals.

University researchers found evidence that shows for the first time how the superbug spreads between different hospitals throughout the country.

The study, carried out by The Roslin Institute, involved looking at the genetic make-up of more than 80 variants of a major clone of MRSA found in hospitals.

Genetic analysis

Scientists were able to determine the entire genetic code of MRSA bacteria taken from infected patients.

They then identified mutations in the bug which led to their emergence of new MRSA variants and traced their spread around the country

We found that variants of MRSA circulating in regional hospitals probably originated in large city hospitals. The high levels of patient traffic in large hospitals means they act as a hub for transmission between patients, who may then be transferred or treated in regional hospitals.

Dr Ross FitzgeraldLeader of the study, The Roslin Institute


MRSA - methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus - first started to appear around 50 years ago following the introduction of antibiotics, to which the bacteria has become increasingly resistant.

The paper published in the journal PNAS, also found that the MRSA strain studied evolved from antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that existed more than 100 years ago.

Our findings suggest that the referral of patients to different hospitals is a major cause of MRSA transmission around the country. This knowledge could help in finding ways to prevent the spread of infections.

Paul McAdamFirst author of the paper, The Roslin Institute


The research was funded by the Chief Scientist Office, Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates, the Medical Research Council and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research.

It involved collaboration between The Roslin Institute,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and University of Bath in the United Kingdom and the Broad Institute and the University of Mississippi Medical Centre in the United States.