Lothian Birth Cohorts


Browse all publications arising from the Lothian Birth Cohorts data since 2001, organised by year and in alphabetical order by first author.


Aribisala, B. S., Hernández, M. D. C. V., Okely, J. A., Cox, S. R., Ballerini, L., Dickie, D. A., et al. (2023). Sleep Quality, Perivascular Spaces and Brain Health Markers in Ageing-A Longitudinal Study in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Sleep Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2023.03.016

Baranyi, G., Conte, F., Deary, I. J., Shortt, N., Thompson, C. W., Cox, S. R., & Pearce, J. (2023). Neighbourhood Deprivation across Eight Decades and Late-Life Cognitive Function in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: A Life-Course Study. Age and Ageing. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afad056

Bernabeu, E., McCartney, D. L., Gadd, D. A., Hillary, R. F., Lu, A. T., Murphy, L., et al. (2023). Refining Epigenetic Prediction of Chronological and Biological Age. Genome Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-023-01161-y

Clancy, U., Radakovic, R., Doubal, F., Hernández, M. D. C. V., Maniega, S. M., Taylor, A. M., et al. (2023). Are Neuropsychiatric Symptoms a Marker of Small Vessel Disease Progression in Older Adults? Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5855

Chundru, V. K., Marioni, R. E., Prendergast, J. G., Lin, T., Beveridge, A. J., Martin, N. G., et al. (2023). Rare Genetic Variants Underlie Outlying Levels of DNA Methylation and Gene-Expression. Human Molecular Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddad028

Corley, J., Conte, F., Harris, S. E., Taylor, A. M., Redmond, P., Russ, T. C., et al. (2023). Predictors of Longitudinal Cognitive Ageing from Age 70 to 82 including APOE e4 Status, Early-Life and Lifestyle Factors: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01900-4

Duperron, M. G., Knol, M. J., Le Grand, Q., Evans, T. E., Mishra, A., Tsuchida, A., et al. (2023). Genomics of Perivascular Space Burden Unravels Early Mechanisms of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. Nature Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-023-02268-w

Fernandez-Rozadilla, C., Timofeeva, M., Chen, Z., Law, P., Thomas, M., Schmit, S., et al. (2023). Deciphering Colorectal Cancer Genetics through Multi-Omic Analysis of 100,204 Cases and 154,587 Controls of European and East Asian Ancestries. Nature Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01222-9

Hahn, J., Bressler, J., Domingo-Relloso, A., Chen, M. H., McCartney, D. L., Teumer, A., et al. (2023). DNA Methylation Analysis is Used to Identify Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Circulating Fibrinogen Levels in Blood. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtha.2023.01.015

Leighton, D. J., Ansari, M., Newton, J., Parry, D., Cleary, E., Colville, S., ... & Lothian Birth Cohorts Group S. Harris, J. Prendergast, T. Russ, A. Taylor, I. Dea. (2023). Genotype–Phenotype Characterisation of Long Survivors with Motor Neuron Disease in Scotland. Journal of Neurology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-022-11505-0

Mathieson, I., Day, F. R., Barban, N., Tropf, F. C., Brazel, D. M., eQTLGen Consortium, et al. (2023). Genome-Wide Analysis Identifies Genetic Effects on Reproductive Success and Ongoing Natural Selection at the FADS Locus. Nature Human Behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-023-01528-6

McGreevy, K.M., Radak, Z., Torma F., Jokai, M., Lu A.T., Belsky, D.W., Binder, A., Marioni, R.E., et al. (2023). DNAmFitAge: Biological Age Indicator Incorporating Physical Fitness. Aging. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204538

Mullin, D. S., Stirland, L. E., Buchanan, E., Convery, C. A., Cox, S. R., Deary, I. J., et al. (2023). Identifying Dementia Using Medical Data Linkage in a Longitudinal Cohort Study: Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. BMC Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-023-04797-7

Saunders, T., Gunn, C., Blennow, K., Kvartsberg, H., Zetterberg, H., Shenkin, S. D., et al. (2023). Neurogranin in Alzheimer's Disease and Ageing: A Human Post-Mortem Study. Neurobiology of Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2023.105991

Saunders, T. S., Pozzolo, F. E., Heslegrave, A., King, D., McGeachan, R. I., Spires-Jones, M. P., et al. (2023). Predictive Blood Biomarkers and Brain Changes Associated with Age-Related Cognitive Decline. Brain Communications. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcad113

Shrine, N., Izquierdo, A. G., Chen, J., Packer, R., Hall, R. J., Guyatt, A. L., et al. (2023). Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Analyses Improve Resolution of Genes and Pathways Influencing Lung Function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk. Nature Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-023-01314-0

Weihs, A., Chaker, L., Martin, T. C., Braun, K. V., Campbell, P. J., Cox, S. R., et al. (2023). Epigenome-Wide Association Study Reveals CpG Sites Associated with Thyroid Function and Regulatory Effects on KLF9. Thyroid. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2022.0373

Yang, Y., Knol, M. J., Wang, R., Mishra, A., Liu, D., Luciano, M., et al. (2023). Epigenetic and Integrative Cross-Omics Analyses of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI. Brain. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac290


Baranyi, G., Deary, I. J., McCartney, D. L., Harris, S. E., Shortt, N., et al. (2022). Life-Course Exposure to Air Pollution and Biological Ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Environment International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107501

Baranyi, G., Welstead, M., Corley, J., Deary, I. J., Muniz-Terrera, G., Redmond, P., et al. (2022). Association of Life-Course Neighborhood Deprivation With Frailty and Frailty Progression From Ages 70 to 82 Years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. American Journal of Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwac134

Barnes, A., Ballerini, L., Valdés Hernández, M. D. C., Chappell, F. M., Muñoz Maniega, S., Meijboom, R., et al. (2022). Topological Relationships between Perivascular Spaces and Progression of White Matter Hyperintensities: A Pilot Study in a Sample of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Frontiers in Neurology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.889884

Bernal, J., Valdés-Hernández, M. D., Escudero, J., Duarte, R., Ballerini, L., Bastin, M. E., et al. (2022). Assessment of Perivascular Space Filtering Methods Using a Three-dimensional Computational Model. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2022.07.016

Brouwer, R.M., Klein, M., Grasby, K.L., Schnack, H.G., Jahanshad, N., Teeuw, J., Thomopoulos, S.I., et al. (2022). Genetic Variants Associated with Longitudinal Changes in Brain Structure across the Lifespan. Nature Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-022-01042-4

Chamberlain, J. D., Nusslé, S., Chapatte, L., Kinnaer, C., Petrovic, D., Pradervand, S., et al. (2022). Blood DNA Methylation Signatures of Lifestyle Exposures: Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption. Clinical Epigenetics. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-022-01376-7

Corley, J. (2022). Adherence to the MIND Diet Is Associated with 12-Year All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults. Public Health Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002979

Conte, F. P., Okely, J. A., Hamilton, O. K., Corley, J., Page, D., Redmond, P., et al. (2022). Cognitive Change before Old Age (11 to 70) Predicts Cognitive Change during Old Age (70 to 82). Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/09567976221100264

Gadd, D.A., Hillary, R.F., McCartney, D.L., Zaghlool, S.B., Stevenson, A.J., Cheng, Y., Fawns-Ritchie, C., et al. (2022). Epigenetic Scores for the Circulating Proteome as Tools for Disease Prediction. ELIFE. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.71802

Higham, J., Kerr, L., Zhang, Q., Walker, R. M., Harris, S. E., Howard, D. M., ... & Sproul, D. (2022). Local CpG Density Affects the Trajectory and Variance of Age-associated DNA Methylation Changes. Genome Biology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-022-02787-8

Huan, T., Nguyen, S., Colicino, E., Ochoa‐Rosales, C., David Hill, W., Brody, J.A., Soerensen, M., et al. (2022). Integrative Analysis of Clinical and Epigenetic Biomarkers of Mortality. Aging Cell. https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13608

Iveson, M. H., Cox, S. R., & Deary, I. J. (2022). Intergenerational Social Mobility and Health in Later Life: Diagonal Reference Models Applied to the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbac107

Jochems, A.C.C., Muñoz Maniega, S., Valdés Hernández, M.C., Barclay, G., Anblagan, D., Ballerini, L., Meijboom, R., et al. (2022). Contribution of White Matter Hyperintensities to Ventricular Enlargement in Older Adults. NeuroImage: Clinical. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103019

Joseph, C.B., Mariniello, M., Yoshifuji, A., Schiano, G., Lake, J., Marten, J., Richmond, A., et al. (2022). Meta-GWAS Reveals Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Urinary Excretion of Uromodulin. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2021040491

Lahti, J., Tuominen, S., Yang, Q., Pergola, G., Ahmad, S., Amin, N., et al. (2022). Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses Reveal Novel Loci for Verbal Short-Term Memory and Learning. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01710-8

Lee, M., Huan, T., McCartney, D. L., Chittoor, G., de Vries, M., Lahousse, L., et al. (2022). Pulmonary Function and Blood DNA Methylation: A Multiancestry Epigenome-wide Association Meta-analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202108-1907OC

Lu, A. T., Binder, A. M., Zhang, J., Yan, Q., Reiner, A. P., Cox, S. R., et al. (2022). DNA Methylation GrimAge Version 2. Aging. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204434

Luciano, M., Corley, J., Valdés Hernández, M.C., Craig, L.C.A., McNeill, G., Bastin, M.E., Deary, I.J., Cox, S.R. & Wardlaw, J.M. (2022). Mediterranean-Type Diet and Brain Structural Change from 73 to 79 Years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-022-1760-5

Mccartney, D.L., Hillary, R.F., Conole, E.L.S., Trejo Banos, D., Gadd, D.A., Walker, R.M., Nangle, C., et al. (2022). Blood-Based Epigenome-Wide Analyses of Cognitive Abilities. Genome Biology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02596-5

Mishra, A., Duplaà, C., Vojinovic, D., Suzuki, H., Sargurupremraj, M., Zilhão, N.R., Li, S., et al. (2022). Gene-Mapping Study of Extremes of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Reveals TRIM47 as a Strong Candidate. Brain. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab432

Mullin, D. S., Cockburn, A., Welstead, M., Luciano, M., Russ, T. C., & Muniz‐Terrera, G. (2022). Mechanisms of Motoric Cognitive Risk—Hypotheses Based on a Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Longitudinal Cohort Studies of Older Adults. Alzheimer's & Dementia. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5824

Okely, J. A., Overy, K., & Deary, I. J. (2022). Experience of Playing a Musical Instrument and Lifetime Change in General Cognitive Ability: Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/09567976221092726

Robertson, N. A., Latorre-Crespo, E., Terradas-Terradas, M., Lemos-Portela, J., Purcell, A. C., Livesey, B. J., et al. (2022). Longitudinal Dynamics of Clonal Hematopoiesis Identifies Gene-Specific Fitness Effects. Nature Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-022-01883-3

Shen, X., Caramaschi, D., Adams, M.J., Walker, R.M., Min, J.L., Kwong, A., Hemani, G., et al. (2022). DNA Methylome-Wide Association Study of Genetic Risk for Depression Implicates Antigen Processing and Immune Responses. Genome Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-022-01039-5

Sliz, E., Shin, J., Ahmad, S., Williams, D.M., Frenzel, S., Gauß, F., Harris, S.E., et al. (2022). Circulating Metabolome and White Matter Hyperintensities in Women and Men. Circulation. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056892

Stevenson, A. J., McCartney, D. L., Gadd, D. A., Shireby, G., Hillary, R. F., King, D., et al. (2022). A Comparison of Blood and Brain‐Derived Ageing and Inflammation‐Related DNA Methylation Signatures and their Association with Microglial Burdens. European Journal of Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15661

Wielscher, M., Mandaviya, P.R., Kuehnel, B., Joehanes, R., Mustafa, R., Robinson, O., Zhang, Y., et al. (2022). DNA Methylation Signature of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Its Role in Cardio-Respiratory Diseases. Nature Communications. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29792-6

Welstead, M., Luciano, M., Russ, T. C., & Muniz-Terrera, G. (2022). Heterogeneity of Frailty Trajectories and Associated Factors in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Gerontology. https://doi.org/10.1159/000519240


Altschul, D., Iveson, M., Deary, I.J. (2021). Generational differences in loneliness and its psychological and sociodemographic predictors: an exploratory and confirmatory machine learning study. Psychol. Med. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719003933

Backhouse, E., Shenkin, S.D., McIntosh, A.M., Bastin, M.E., Whalley, H., del Valdez Hernandes, M., Muñoz Maniega, S., et al. (2021). Early Life Predictors of Late Life Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Four Prospective Cohort Studies. Brain. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab331

Bressler, J., Davies, G., Smith, A.V., Saba, Y., Bis, J.C., Jian, X., Hayward, C., et al. (2021). Association of Low-Frequency and Rare Coding Variants with Information Processing Speed. Translational Psychiatry 11 (1): 613. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01736-6

Buchanan, C.R., Muñoz Maniega, S., Valdés Hernández, M.C., Ballerini, L., Barclay, G., et al. (2021). Comparison of structural MRI brain measures between 1.5 and 3 T: Data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Hum Brain Mapp hbm.25473. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25473

Chung, J., Hamilton, G., Kim, M., Marini, S., Montgomery, B., et al. (2021). Rare Missense Functional Variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in Sporadic Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Neurology. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012227

Conole, E.L. S., Stevenson, A.J., Muñoz Maniega, S., Harris, S.E., Green,C.,  del C. Valdés Hernández, M., Harris, M.A., et al. (2021). DNA Methylation and Protein Markers of Chronic Inflammation and Their Associations With Brain and Cognitive Aging. Neurology. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012997

Corley, J., and Deary. I. (2021). Dietary Patterns and Trajectories of Global and Domain-Specific Cognitive Decline in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. British Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520005139.

Corley, J., Okely, J.A., Taylor, A.M., Page, D., Welstead, M., et al. (2021). Home garden use during COVID-19: Associations with physical and mental wellbeing in older adults. Journal of Environmental Psychology 73, 101545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2020.101545

Cox, S.R., Harris, M.A., Ritchie, S.J., Buchanan, C.R., Valdés Hernández, M.C., et al. (2021). Three major dimensions of human brain cortical ageing in relation to cognitive decline across the eighth decade of life. Mol Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00975-1

Cuellar-Partida, G., Tung, J.Y., Eriksson, N., Albrecht, E., Aliev, F., et al. (2021). Genome-wide association study identifies 48 common genetic variants associated with handedness. Nat Hum Behav. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00956-y

Deary, I.J., Cox, S.R., Hill, W.D. (2021). Genetic variation, brain, and intelligence differences. Mol Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01027-y

Deary, I.J., Hill, W.D., Gale, C.R. (2021). Intelligence, health and death. Nat Hum Behav 5, 416–430. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01078-9

Deary, I.J., Sternberg, R.J. (2021). Ian Deary and Robert Sternberg answer five self-inflicted questions about human intelligence. Intelligence 86, 101539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2021.101539

de las Fuentes, L., Sung, Y.J., Noordam, R., Winkler, T., Feitosa, M.F., Schwander, K., Bentley, A.R., et al. (2021). Gene-Educational Attainment Interactions in a Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Identify Novel Blood Pressure Loci. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0719-3

Gadd, D.A., Stevenson, A.J., Hillary, R.F., McCartney, D.L., Wrobel, N., et al. (2021). Epigenetic predictors of lifestyle traits applied to the blood and brain. Brain Commun 3, fcab082. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab082

Hamilton, O., Cox, S., Ballerini, L., Bastin, M., Corley, J., et al. (2021). Associations between total MRI-visible small vessel disease burden and domain-specific cognitive abilities in a community-dwelling older-age cohort. Neurobiology of Aging. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250986

Hamilton, O.K.L., Cox, S.R., Okely, J.A., Conte, F., Ballerini, L., et al. (2021). Cerebral small vessel disease burden and longitudinal cognitive decline from age 73 to 82: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Transl Psychiatry 11, 376. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01495-4

Hillary, R. F., Stevenson, A.J., Cox, S.R., McCartney, D.L., Harris, S.E., Seeboth, A., Higham, J., et al. (2021). An Epigenetic Predictor of Death Captures Multi-Modal Measures of Brain Health. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1101/703504

Huguet, G., Schramm, C., Douard, E., Tamer, P., Main, A., et al. (2021). Genome wide analysis of gene dosage in 24,092 individuals estimates that 10,000 genes modulate cognitive ability. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00985-z

Iveson, M.H., Taylor, A., Harris, S.E., Deary, I.J., McIntosh, A.M. (2021). Apolipoprotein E e4 allele status and later-life depression in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Psychol. Med. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000623

Jia, T., Chu, C., Liu, Y., van Dongen, J., Armstrong, N.J., Bastin, M.E., Carrillo-Roa, T., et al. (2021). Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Blood DNA Methylation and Its Association with Subcortical Volumes: Findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1101/460444

Juvinao-Quintero, D.L., Marioni, R.E., Ochoa-Rosales, C., Russ, T.C., Deary, I.J., et al. (2021). DNA methylation of blood cells is associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis of four European cohorts. Clin Epigenet 13, 40. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01027-3

Lam, M., Lencz, T., Chia-Yen, C., Yan, X., Hill, W.D., et al. (2021). Identifying Nootropic Drug Targets via Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS and Transcriptomics. Neuropsychopharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.06.934752

Madole, J.W., Ritchie, S.J., Cox, S.R., Buchanan, C.R., Hernández, M.V., et al. (2021). Aging-Sensitive Networks Within the Human Structural Connectome Are Implicated in Late-Life Cognitive Declines. Biological Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.06.010

McCartney, D.L., Min, J.L., Richmond, R.C., Lu, A.T., Sobczyk, M.K., et al. (2021). Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging. Genome Biol 22, 194. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02398-9

Min, J.L., Hemani, G., Hannon, E., Dekkers, K.F., Castillo-Fernandez, J., Luijk, R., Carnero-Montoro, E., et al. (2021). Genomic and Phenotypic Insights from an Atlas of Genetic Effects on DNA Methylation. Nature Genetics 53(9): 1311–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00923-x

Murray, A.L., Vollmer, M., Deary, I., Terrera, G., Booth, T. (2021). Assessing individual-level change in dementia research. Alzheimer’s research & therapy 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-021-00768-w

Nabais, M.F., Laws, S.M., Lin, T., Vallerga, C.L., Armstrong, N.J., et al. (2021). Meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation identifies shared associations across neurodegenerative disorders. Genome Biol 22, 90. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02275-5

Okely, J.A., Deary, I.J., Overy, K. (2021). The Edinburgh Lifetime Musical Experience Questionnaire (ELMEQ). PLoS ONE 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254176

Portilla-fernández, E., Hwang, S., Wilson, R., Maddock, J., Hill, W.D., et al. (2021). Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of carotid intima-media thickness. European Journal of Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00759-z

Racine Maurice, S., Hébert, A., Turcotte, V., Potvin, O., Hudon, C., et al. (2021). Childhood Socioeconomic Status Does Not Predict Late-Life Cognitive Decline in the 1936 Lothian Birth Cohort. Front. Psychol. 12, 679044. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.679044

Russ, T.C., Cherrie, M.P. c., Dibben, C., Tomlinson, S., Reis, S., et al. (2021). Life Course Air Pollution Exposure and Cognitive Decline: Modelled Historical Air Pollution Data and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200910

Stevenson, A.J., Gadd, D.A., Hillary, R.F., McCartney, D.L., Campbell, A., et al. (2021). Creating and validating a DNA methylation-based proxy for interleukin-6. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A glab046. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab046

Sun, D., Richard, M., Musani, S.K., Sung, Y.J., Winkler, T.W., Schwander, K., Chai, J.F., et al. (2021). Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Study Accounting for Gene-Psychosocial Factor Interactions Identifies Novel Loci for Blood Pressure Traits. HGG Advances 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2020.100013

Taylor, A.M., Page, D., Okely, J.A., Corley, J., Welstead, M., et al. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on psychosocial factors, health, and lifestyle in Scottish octogenarians: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. PLoS One 16, e0253153. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253153

Welstead, M., Luciano, M., Muniz-Terrera, G., Saunders, S., Mullin, D.S., et al. (2021a). Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment Stability, Progression, or Reversion in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. JAD 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201282

Welstead, M., Luciano, M., Muniz-Terrera, G., Taylor, A.M., Russ, T.C. (2021b). Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000433

Wheater, E., Shenkin, S.D., Muñoz Maniega, S., Valdés Hernández, M., Wardlaw, J.M., et al. (2021). Birth weight is associated with brain tissue volumes seven decades later but not with MRI markers of brain ageing. NeuroImage: Clinical 31, 102776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102776

Yang, T., Jackson, V.E., Smith, A.V., Chen, H., Bartz, T.M., Sitlani, C.M., Psaty, B.M., et al. (2021). Rare and Low-Frequency Exonic Variants and Gene-by-Smoking Interactions in Pulmonary Function. Scientific Reports 11(1): 19365. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98120-7

Zhang, J., Lim, H.F., Chappell, F.M., Clancy, U., Wiseman, S., et al. (2021). Relationship between inferior frontal sulcal hyperintensities on brain MRI, ageing and cerebral small vessel disease. Neurobiology of Aging 106, 130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.06.013



Alonso, N., Larraz‐Prieto, B., Berg, K., Lambert, Z., Redmond, P., et al. (2020). Loss‐of‐function mutations in the ALPL gene presenting with adult onset osteoporosis and low serum concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase. J Bone Miner Res jbmr.3928. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3928

Altschul, D., Starr, J., Deary, I. (2020). Blood pressure and cognitive function across the eighth decade: a prospective study of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936. BMJ Open 10, e033990. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033990

Altschul, D.M., Deary, I.J. (2020). Playing analog games is associated with reduced declines in cognitive function: a 68 year longitudinal cohort study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B gbz149. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbz149

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Starr, John M., Shiels, P.G., Harris, S.E., Pattie, A., Pearce, M.S., et al., (2008). Oxidative stress, telomere length and biomarkers of physical aging in a cohort aged 79 years from the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 129, 745–751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2008.09.020

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Gow, A.J., Pattie, A., Whiteman, M.C., Whalley, L.J., Deary, I.J., (2007). Social Support and Successful Aging: Investigating the Relationships Between Lifetime Cognitive Change and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Individual Differences 28, 103–115. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.28.3.103

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Starr, J., Mcgurn, B., Harris, S., Whalley, L., Deary, I., et al., (2007). Association between telomere length and heart disease in a narrow age cohort of older people. Experimental Gerontology 42, 571–573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2006.12.002

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Deary, I. J., Bastin, M.E., Pattie, A., Clayden, J.D., Whalley, L.J., et al., (2006a). White matter integrity and cognition in childhood and old age. Neurology 66, 505–512. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000199954.81900.e2

Deary, Ian J., Hayward, C., Permana, P.A., Nair, S., Whalley, L.J., et al., (2006). Polymorphisms in the gene encoding 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) and lifetime cognitive change. Neuroscience Letters 393, 74–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.09.047

Deary, I. J., Whalley, L.J., Batty, G.D., Starr, J.M., (2006b). Physical fitness and lifetime cognitive change. Neurology 67, 1195–1200. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000238520.06958.6a

Harris, Sarah E., Deary, I.J., MacIntyre, A., Lamb, K.J., Radhakrishnan, K., et al., (2006). The association between telomere length, physical health, cognitive ageing, and mortality in non-demented older people. Neuroscience Letters 406, 260–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2006.07.055

Harris, S E, Fox, H., Wright, A.F., Hayward, C., Starr, J.M., et al., (2006). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism is associated with age-related change in reasoning skills. Mol Psychiatry 11, 505–513. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001799



Deary, I.J., Harris, S.E., Fox, H.C., Hayward, C., Wright, A.F., et al., (2005). KLOTHO genotype and cognitive ability in childhood and old age in the same individuals. Neuroscience Letters 378, 22–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2004.12.005

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Gow, Alan J., Whiteman, M.C., Pattie, A., Deary, I.J., (2005b). Goldberg’s ‘IPIP’ Big-Five factor markers: Internal consistency and concurrent validation in Scotland. Personality and Individual Differences 39, 317–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.01.011

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Harris, S.E., Wright, A.F., Hayward, C., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., et al., (2005). The functional COMT polymorphism, Val158Met, is associated with logical memory and the personality trait intellect/imagination in a cohort of healthy 79 year olds. Neuroscience Letters 385, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.04.104

Kachiwala, S.J., Harris, S.E., Wright, A.F., Hayward, C., Starr, J.M., et al., (2005). Genetic influences on oxidative stress and their association with normal cognitive ageing. Neuroscience Letters 386, 116–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.05.067

Thomson, P.A., Harris, S.E., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Porteous, D.J., et al., (2005). Association between genotype at an exonic SNP in DISC1 and normal cognitive aging. Neuroscience Letters 389, 41–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.07.004



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Deary, I.J., Whiteman, M.C., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Fox, H.C., (2004b). The Impact of Childhood Intelligence on Later Life: Following Up the Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86, 130–147. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.1.130

McGurn, B., Starr, J.M., Topfer, J.A., Pattie, A., Whiteman, M.C., et al., (2004). Pronunciation of irregular words is preserved in dementia, validating premorbid IQ estimation. Neurology 62, 1184–1186. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000103169.80910.8B

Sandeep, T.C., Yau, J.L.W., MacLullich, A.M.J., Noble, J., Deary, I.J., et al., (2004). 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition improves cognitive function in healthy elderly men and type 2 diabetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, 6734–6739. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0306996101

Starr, J.M., McGurn, B., Whiteman, M., Pattie, A., Whalley, L.J., et al., (2004). Life long changes in cognitive ability are associated with prescribed medications in old age. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry 19, 327–332. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1093



Deary, I.J., (2003). Smoking and cognitive change from age 11 to age 80. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 74, 1006–1007. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.74.7.1006

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