Principles of good formative assessment
The Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Higher Education (REAP) project devised principles of good feedback practice based on a self-regulation model and showed the benefits of their application using technology across a range of disciplines.
They developed the twelve principles listed below, and for each a question is suggested for teachers to ask themselves.
Help clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, standards): to what extent do students in your course have opportunities to engage actively with goals, criteria and standards, before, during and after an assessment task?
Encourage ‘time and effort’ on challenging learning tasks: to what extent do your assessment tasks encourage regular study in and out of class and deep rather than surface learning?
Deliver high quality feedback information that helps learners self-correct: what kind of teacher feedback do you provide - in what ways does it help students self-assess and self-correct?
Provide opportunities to act on feedback (to close any gap between current and desired performance). To what extent is feedback attended to and acted upon by students in your course, and if so, in what ways?
Ensure that summative assessment has a positive impact on learning: to what extent are your summative and formative assessments aligned and support the development of valued qualities, skills and understanding.
Encourage interaction and dialogue around learning. What opportunities are there for feedback dialogue (peer and/or tutor-student) around assessment tasks in your course?
Facilitate the development of self-assessment and reflection in learning: to what extent are there formal opportunities for reflection, self-assessment or peer assessment in your course?
Give choice in the topic, method, criteria, weighting or timing of assessments: to what extent do students have choice in the topics, methods, criteria, weighting and/or timing of learning and assessment tasks in your course?
Involve students in decision-making about assessment policy and practice: to what extent are your students in your course kept informed or engaged in consultations regarding assessment decisions?
Support the development of learning communities: to what extent do your assessments and feedback processes help support the development of learning communities?
Encourage positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem: to what extent do your assessments and feedback processes activate your students’ motivation to learn and be successful?
Provide information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching: to what extent do your assessments and feedback processes inform and shape your teaching?
More information: Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Higher Education (REAP) project
The Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Higher Education (REAP) project website has more information and resources.