Infection Medicine

Dr Holger Schulze

Senior Research Fellow, Bachmann Group

Dr Holger Schulze

Senior Research Fellow

  • Chancellor's Building
  • 49 Little France Crescent
  • EH16 4SB

Contact details


I work in the field of electrochemical biosensors and point-of-care test development for molecular diagnostics.

Research Themes

Personal Profile

  • More than 10 years experience in academia and 3 years in industry in molecular diagnostics, point-of-care test development and biosensor research including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and amperometric enzyme biosensors, sensor development, electrochemical DNA and RNA detection as well as protein and DNA microarrays.
  • Experienced researcher in multi-disciplinary teams working on the development of diagnostic biosensor platforms for antimicrobial resistance, infectious diseases and microRNA detection.


Schulze H, Arnott A, Libori A, Obaje EA, Bachmann TT (2021) Temperature-Enhanced mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene Detection with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Biosensors. Anal. Chem. 93, 6025–6033.

Schulze H, Wilson H, Cara I, Carter S, Dyson EN, Elangovan R, Rimmer S, Bachmann TT (2021) Label-free electrochemical sensor for rapid bacterial pathogen detection using vancomycin-modified highly branched polymers. Sensors 21, 1–14.

Ongaro AE, Keraite I, Liga A, Conoscenti G, Coles S, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Parvez K, Casiraghi C, Howarth N, La Carubba V, Kersaudy-Kerhoas M (2018) Laser Ablation of Poly(lactic acid) Sheets for the Rapid Prototyping of Sustainable, Single-Use, Disposable Medical Microcomponents. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 6.

Corrigan DK, Schulze H, Ciani I, Henihan G, Mount AR, Bachmann TT (2017) Improving performance of a rapid electrochemical MRSA assay: Optimisation of assay conditions to achieve enhanced discrimination of clinically important DNA sequences under ambient conditions Journal of electroanalytical chemistry  786 58-62.

Henihan G*, Schulze H*, Corrigan D, Giraud G, Terry JG, Hardie A, Campbell CJ, Walton AJ, Crain J, Pethig R, Templeton KE, Mount AR, Bachmann TT (2016)  Label- and amplification-free electrochemical detection of bacterial ribosomal RNA. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 81, 487–494. *These authors contributed equally to this study.

Obaje EA, Cummins G, Schulze H, Mahmood S, Desmulliez MPY, Bachmann TT (2016) Carbon screen-printed electrodes on ceramic substrates for label-free molecular detection of antibiotic resistance. Journal of Interdisciplinary Nanomedicine 1, 93-109.

Al-Rubaye DS, Henihan G, Abas Al-Abasly AK, Seagar A-L, Al-Attraqchi AAF, Schulze H, Salman Hashim D, Khalid Kamil J, Laurenson IF , Bachmann TT (2016) Genotypic assessment of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Baghdad and other Iraqi provinces using low-cost and density (LCD) DNA microarraysJournal of Medical Microbiology 65, 114-122.  

Huang JM, Henihan G, Macdonald D, Michalowski A, Templeton K, Gibb AP, Schulze H, Bachmann TT (2015) Rapid Electrochemical Detection of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes To Enable Point-of-Care Testing of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Anal. Chem. 87 (15), 7738-7745.

Schulze H, Rubtsova M & Bachmann TT (2015) DNA Microarrays for Pathogen Detection, In Modern Techniques for Pathogen Detection, J. Popp & M. Bauer, eds., Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. 113-220.

Corrigan DK, Schulze H, McDermott RA, Schmuser I, Henihan G, Henry JB, Bachmann TT & Mount AR (2014) Improving electrochemical biosensor performance by understanding the influence of target DNA length on assay sensitivity. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 732, 25-29.

Syed, S.N., Schulze, H., Macdonald, D., Crain, J., Mount, A.R., Bachmann, T.T. (2013) Cyclic denaturation and renaturation of double-stranded DNA by redox-state switching of DNA intercalators. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 5399-5407.

Corrigan, D. K., Schulze, H., Henihan, G., Hardie, A., Ciani, I., Giraud, G., Terry, J. G., Walton, A. J., Pethig, R., Ghazal, P., Crain, J., Campbell, C. J., Templeton, K. E., Mount, A. R., Bachmann, T. T. (2013) Development of a PCR-free electrochemical point of care test for clinical detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Analyst, 138, 6997-7005.

Nonaka Y, Yoshida W, Abe K, Ferri S, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Ikebukuro K (2013) Affinity improvement of a VEGF aptamer by in silico maturation for a sensitive VEGF-detection system. Anal. Chem. 85, 1132-1137.

Schulze H, Barl T, Vase H, Baier S, Thomas P, Giraud G, Crain J, Bachmann TT. (2012) Enzymatic on-Chip Enhancement for High Resolution Genotyping DNA Microarrays. Anal. Chem. 84, 5080-5084.

Corrigan DK*, Schulze H*, Henihan G, Ciani I, Giraud G, Terry JG, Walton AJ, Pethig R, Ghazal P, Crain J, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Bachmann TT. (2012) Impedimetric detection of single-stranded PCR products derived from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 34, 178-184. *These authors contributed equally to this study.

Ciani I, Schulze H, Corrigan DK, Henihan G, Giraud G, Terry JG, Walton AJ, Pethig R, Ghazal P, Crain J, Campbell CJ, Bachmann TT, Mount AR. (2012) Development of immunosensors for direct detection of three wound infection biomarkers at point of care using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors & Biolelectronics. 31, 413-418.

Giraud G, Pethig R, Schulze H, Henihan G, Terry JG, Menachery A, Ciani I, Corrigan D, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Ghazal P, Walton AJ, Crain J, Bachmann TT. (2011) Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA. Biomicrofluidics. 5, 024116. (selected for inclusion in the July 1, 2011 issue of Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research).

Schulze H, Ross AJ, Ember SWJ, Luby J, Khondoker M, Giraud G, Ciani I, Tlili C, Papale D, Terry JG, Mount AR, Walton AJ, Crain J, Ghazal P, Bachmann TT, and Campbell CJ. (2011) Peptide-tags for enhanced DNA microarray performance. Faraday Discuss. 149, 201-210.

Ember SWJ*, Schulze H*, Ross AJ, Luby J, Khondoker M, Giraud G, Terry JG, Ciani I, Tlili C, Crain J, Walton AJ, Ghazal P, Bachmann TT, Campbell CJ (2011) Fast DNA and protein microarray tests for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection on a single platform. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 401, 2549-2559. *These authors contributed equally to this study.

Roepcke CBS, Muench SB, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Hauer B, (2011) Tailoring biosensors for Brazil: Detection of insecticides in foods. Food Control 22, 1061-1071.

Dounin V, Constantinof A, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, and Kerman K. (2011) Electrochemical detection of interaction between Thioflavin T and acetylcholinesterase. Analyst. 136, 1234-1238.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Li DU, Bachmann TT, Crain J, Tyndall D, Richardson J, Walker R, Stoppa D, Charbon E, Henderson R, and Arlt J. (2010) Fluorescence lifetime biosensing with DNA microarrays and a CMOS-SPAD imager. Biomed. Opt. Express. 1, 1302-1308.

Khondoker MR, Bachmann TT, Mewissen M, Dickinson P, Dobrzelecki B, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Walton AJ, Crain J, Schulze H, Giraud G, Ross AJ, Ciani I, EmberSW, TliliC, Terry JG, Grant E, McDonnell N, and Ghazal P. (2010) Multi-factorial analysis of class prediction error: estimating optimal number of biomarkers for various classification rules. J. Bioinform. Comput. Biol. 8, 945-965.

Brinker A, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Moeller R (2010). Lambda exonuclease pre-treatment for improved DNA-chip performance depends on the relative probe-target position. Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 898-902.

Roepcke CBS, Muench SB, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Hauer B (2010). Analysis of Phosphorothionate Pesticides Using a Chloroperoxidase Pretreatment and Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58: 8748-8756.

Dounin V, Veloso AJ, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Kerman K (2010). Disposable electrochemical printed gold chips for the analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Anal. Chim. Acta, 669: 63-67.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Ghazal P, Khondoker MR, Ember SWJ, Ciani I, Tlili C, Walton AJ, Terry JG, Crain J (2010). Solution state hybridization detection using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of quantum dot-DNA bioconjugates. Chem Phys Letters 484: 309-314.

Schulze H, Giraud G, Crain J, and Bachmann TT (2009). Multiplexed optical pathogen detection with lab-on-a-chip devices. J Biophotonics. 2: 199-211.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Campbell CJ, Mount RA, Ghazal P, Khondoker MR, Ross AJ, Ember SW, Ciani I, Tlili C, Walton AJ, Terry JG, and Crain J (2009). Fluorescence lifetime imaging of quantum dot labeled DNA microarrays. Int. J Mol Sci 10: 1930-1941.

Richter S, Nieveler J, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (2006). High yield production of a mutant Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Acetylcholinesterase in Pichia pastoris and its purification. Biotechnol Bioeng 93:1017-1022.

Teller C, Halamek J, Makower A, Fournier D, Schulze H, Scheller FW (2006). A piezoelectric sensor with propidium as a recognition element for cholinesterases. Sensors Actuators, B: Chem B113(1): 1017-1022.

Shumyantseva VV, Bulko TV, Samenkova NF, Kuznetsova GP, Usanov SA, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Archakov AI (2006). A new format of electrodes for the electrochemical reduction of cytochromes P450. J Inorg Biochem 100(8): 1353-1357.

Schulze H, Muench SB, Villatte F, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2005). Insecticide Detection through Protein Engineering of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Acetylcholinesterase B. Anal Chem 77:5823-5830.

Waibel M, Schulze H, Huber N, Bachmann TT (2005). Screen-printed bienzymatic sensor based on sol-gel immobilized Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase and a cytochrome P450 BM-3 (CYP102-A1) mutant. Biosens Bioelectron 21: 1132-1140.

Zhang YD, Muench SB, Schulze H, Perz R, Yang BL, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2005). Disposable biosensor test for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in milk. J Agric Food Chem 53:5110-5115.

Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2004). Activation of phosphorothionate pesticides based on a cytochrorne P450BM-3 (CYP102 A1) mutant for expanded neurotoxin detection in food using acetylcholinesterase biosensors. Anal Chem 76:1720-1725.

Schulze H, Nonhoff U, Villatte F, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2004). Highly sensitive neurotoxin detection using disposable acetylcholinesterase biosensors at elevated temperatures. Sensor Lett 2:121-124.

Schulze H, Vorlova S, Villatte F, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (2003). Design of acetylcholinesterases for biosensor applications. Biosens Bioelectron 18:201-209.

Villatte F, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2003). A long insertion reverts the functional effect of a substitution in acetylcholinesterase. Protein Eng 16:463-465.

Maurer S, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Urlacher V (2003). Immobilisation of P450BM-3 and an NADP(+) cofactor recycling system: Towards a technical application of heme-containing monooxygenases in fine chemical synthesis. Adv Synth Catal 345:802-810.

Villatte F, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). A disposable acetylcholinesterase-based electrode biosensor to detect anatoxin-a(s) in water. Anal Bioanal Chem 372:322-326.

Schulze H, Scherbaum E, Anastassiades M, Vorlova S, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). Development, validation, and application of an acetylcholinesterase-biosensor test for the direct detection of insecticide residues in infant food. Biosens Bioelectron 17:1095-1105.

Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). Rapid detection of neurotoxic insecticides in food using disposable acetylcholinesterase-biosensors and simple solvent extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 372:268-272.

Conference Presentations


First European / 10th German BioSensor Symposium 2017, Potsdam (Germany). Oral presentation "Electrochemical biosensor platform for rapid antimicrobial resistance testing at point-of-care "


Rapid Methods Europe RME2016, Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Invited oral presentation "Amplification-free electrochemical biosensor platform for rapid antimicrobial resistance testing at point-of-care"


German Biosensor Symposium, Munich (Germany). Oral presentation “Impedance sensing for rapid, label-free molecular diagnostics of antimicrobial resistance"

Federation of Infection Societies (FIS) Annual Conference 2015, Glasgow (UK). Poster presentation "Towards rapid electrochemical detection of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase producing multi-drug resistant bacteria at point of care"

Biosensors 2014, Melbourne, Australia. Oral presentation "Of Sample Preparation and Biomarkers – Turning Good Biosensors into Better Molecular Diagnostics"
SCIENION's Workshop Series DIAGNOSTICS 4.0 - Miniaturized Assays: Technologies, Applications & Markets, Berlin, Germany. Oral presentation "Rapid Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance: From Microarrays to Point of Care Testing with Electrochemical Biosensors"
German Biosensor Symposium, Wildau (Germany). Oral presentation “Direct label-free molecular detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using an impedimetric biosensor"
Biosensors 2012, Cancun, Mexico. Oral presentation "Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA for nucleic acid biosensors"
German Biosensor Symposium, Heiligenstadt (Germany). Oral presentation “Enhanced enzymatic signal amplification for impedimetric DNA biosensors"
20th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors, Glasgow, UK. Oral presentation “Improving the sensitivity and speed of DNA microarrays”
German Biosensor Symposium, Freiburg (Germany). Oral presentation “Improving the sensitivity and speed of DNA microarrays”
Advances in Microarray Technology, Barcelona (Spain). Oral presentation “Automated Production of Functional Hepatitis C Protein Microarrays on 3D Substrates Using Inkjet”
VIII International Meeting on Cholinesterases, Perugia (Italy). Oral presentation “Highly sensitive insecticide detection by protein engineering of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase”
The Seventh World Congress on Biosensors, Kyoto (Japan). Poster “Disposable AChE-biosensor for rapid infant food testing with high accuracy at trace concentrations”

Related Links

Bachmann Group