About our staff
Dr Ulrike Roth
Reader; Ancient History
I joined the University of Edinburgh in 2004. Before, I held posts in the University of Wales, Swansea and at King's College London, where I taught both Roman and Greek history. I am a historian by training: my alma mater is the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz in south-west Germany from which I graduated with a degree in History, Theology and Pedagogy (‘Staatsexamen’) in 1997. After graduating, I taught German for three years at a sixth-form college in Sussex, ran my own restaurant, and completed a PhD in Ancient History in 2004 at the University of Nottingham on the role of enslaved women in Roman agriculture. Following my PhD, I have continued to work on slavery, which remains the chief focus of my research.
I firmly believe in the importance of academic citizenship and service to the wider scholarly community and have, therefore, offered myself from early on in my career to undertake diverse management roles (including, at Edinburgh, REF2014 co-ordinator for Classics, and the headship of Classics, 2011-2015), as well as to hold honorary offices (including the Secretaryship of the British Epigraphy Society, 2010 onwards, and as Statistics Officer for the Council of University Classical Departments, 2009-2015).
I was promoted to a Senior Lectureship in 2012, and to a Readership in 2018. At present, I am concentrating primarily on research on child slavery at Rome, supported by a Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellowship, 2017-2020. I have also recently directed the first phase of a larger project on 'The Roman Slave Community', supported by a University CAHSS Challenge Investment Fund, and am collaborating with Prof. Pedro López Barja de Quiroga (USC) and Prof. Carla Masa Doria (Naples, Federico II) on a major project concerned with Junian Latinity: Beyond the Black Hole: Locating Junian Latins in the Roman Empire. My interest in comparative approaches to the study of slavery has recently taken me to Yale, in November 2019, to participate in the Annual Conference of the Gilder Lehrman Center.
Member, AHRC Peer Review College, 2020-2023
Series Editor, Edinburgh Studies in Ancient Slavery (ESAS)
Honorary Secretary, The British Epigraphy Society, 2010-
Expert étranger, Prix SoPHAU (Société des professeurs d'histoire ancienne de l'université, France), 2016
Standing Committee Member, and Statistics Officer, Council of University Classical Departments, 2009-2015
Panel Member, Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) Gender Equality Charter Mark Trial, 2014
Dr Roth on BBC Radio 4 - In our Time on 'Roman Slavery' with Melvyn Bragg
Summary of research interestsPlaces:
Beside my love for (ancient) Italy, my research interests lie in the study of slavery, and in the ways in which slavery is used as a means of securing a society's labour requirements. I am also interested in the ways in which slavery is conceptualised, in ancient and less ancient times as well as in modern scholarship. But my interest in the study of slavery has arisen from a much broader concern with social organisation – and slavery, as a system based on force, offers an often much clearer and more accentuated picture of the roles that individuals and groups have been allocated in a given society. What I really would like to know is how such role-giving works, and why individuals accept or break away from the roles allocated to them – then as now.
As a historian of slavery, my concern is with slavery’s role in the evolution of European socio-economic structures, particularly those concerning class and gender relations. My working hypothesis is that the Roman ‘invention’ of slavery established a distinctive organisation of labour ‘at work’ that has in principle been maintained by European society up to and beyond the abolition of slavery: slavery made possible a division of labour based on the regular exploitation of significant numbers of labourers working typically for someone other than themselves, entailing crucial gender, status and class distinctions. ‘Made at Rome’, this system of labour organisation was passed on to post-classical society: slavery is the means by which a major shift in social organisation has been brought to the European continent; and an essential field of inquiry for understanding Western culture.
The conceptual focus of my work is the question of the 'nature' of slavery – which is a critical dimension especially of the study of the so-called transition from (Roman) slavery to (medieval) serfdom. I reject the idea of a decline of slavery in the late Roman period in favour of widespread serfdom, questioning in particular the notion that the enslaved, unlike serfs, lacked familial and kinship relations, and that the unfree became embedded in such relations in the course of the Roman imperial period only, moving slowly towards a serfdom-model. This transition model hinges on a distorted view of Roman slavery – which I seek to revise through my work on enslaved families, female and child slavery at Rome.
Current research activities
To challenge the standard view of the transition from Roman to medieval times, I have concentrated in past and current research activities on demonstrating that the central texts documenting Roman agricultural slavery from the middle Republic to the early Empire – c. 150 BC to AD 50 – show already the widespread exploitation of enslaved women in rural contexts and, hence, the typical existence of enslaved families in the countryside of Roman Italy (esp. Thinking Tools (2007); see also PBSR 2011; Index 2008; JRA 2005; PBSR 2004). To demolish in its entirety the false notion that Roman slavery was not characterised by work and life in family units, it is essential to document in a separate argument the role of enslaved children in both Republic and Empire – which is the focus of my current work, supported by a Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellowship: Enslaved Childhoods: Redefining Roman Slavery. Once it is established that child slavery was quantitatively and qualitatively a distinctive element of the Roman slave system through the ages, my argument can move on to deal with the labour conditions of the enslaved, i.e. the economic relationships between slaver and enslaved, to show their great variety, as well as clear similarities with the economic relationships between medieval lord and serf. This step of my work also includes detailed analysis of the representation of freedom in key texts of the Roman imperial period to expose a substantially ‘messier’ approach to slavery and freedom than widely accepted. I question the notion that the Roman elite shared an essentially uniform approach and attitude to slavery and the enslaved, arguing that Rome’s elite was affected by severe disagreements concerning the relative value of self-advancement and political service, the individual and the community, freedom and slavery. (For details see ‘Research Projects’, below). I also plan to work on medieval evidence to document the continuity of exploitation structures known to be typical of the Roman world into the Middle Ages. In this, as well as in current work on late antique and early medieval topics, my focus is on the role of the Christian Church in the continued exploitation of men, women and children as slaves and dependent labourers, exploring the hypothesis that the Church – following the Pauline model (e.g. ZNW 2014) – was the key enabler of slavery’s transmission from the Roman to the medieval world (e.g. Antiquité Tardive 2016).
Apart from my work on Roman child slavery, ongoing projects include analyses of several texts of the Roman imperial era that conceptualise and explore different notions of Roman libertas.
First, I am working on Petronius' Trimalchio, and the construction of social death, arguing inter alia that the Satyricon is a response to the writings of (e.g.) Pliny the Younger, and also to Tacitus – thus also dating the text to the second century (CQ 2016). The book-length re-reading of Trimalchio's 'Life' is advancing in tandem with smaller studies of individual (technical) aspects (e.g. CQ 2014; Revue de Philologie 2009).
Second, in a 'parallel' project, I explore in a book-length study the senate meeting in the first book of Tacitus’ Annals – provisionally titled Tacitus and the Limits of Empire. From Paratext to Intellectual History – which offers at base a new reading of one of the most baffling sentences in ‘Augustus’ testament’, i.e. the recommendation to keep the empire within its bounds: … Augustus addideratque consilium coercendi intra terminos imperii, incertum metu an per invidiam (Ann. 1.11.4). The book explores a creative misreading of the passage to reveal a hitherto unrecognised dimension of the Tacitean approach to imperial government – and a much more complex attitude to libertas at Rome.
Finally, I have made the mistake to have got excited about Livy, and his attempt to ‘save’ the Romans from a Gallic take-over, thereby in essence preserving Roman libertas, in Book 5. I argue in a longer study and several shorter pieces (e.g. Mnemosyne 2018; CQ 2020) that Livy knew a version of the narrative that saw Rome taken in its entirety – but that he evidently chose to offer an alternative (hi)story, thereby ‘saving Rome’ from (the shame of) slavery.
All three projects – Livy, Tacitus, Petronius – add to my argument that ‘freedom’ and ‘slavery’ were concepts (and realities) that were heavily debated by the Romans of the (early) imperial period, muddying the waters between a seemingly clear-cut Roman world of slavery and a more complex medieval world of serfdom.
Knowledge Exchange and Impact
There have never been more people subject to enslavement and forced labour than in today’s world. Slavery is, sadly, not restricted to the long gone past, but an acute issue that requires direct engagement. I genuinely believe that the historical study of slavery must inform our current approach to slave exploitation, and that such historical study forms part of the fight against modern-day slavery. For instance, in my work on enslaved children in the ancient Roman world, I seek to foreground what I call ‘the enslaved voice’, to move our perspective away from that of those who exercised the powers of ownership over these children: this shift in perspective is also a quintessential requirement still today in the cultural milieus that foster the enslavement of individuals, even in societies in which the legal framework denies enslavement of any human being, or in which the dominant socio-cultural attitude is thoroughly against human enslavement.
It goes without saying that in the fight against modern slavery, researchers and activists must break away from a widespread preference to speak for – i.e. on behalf of – those who have been silenced through enslavement. In the work with contemporary enslaved children, it is now widely recognised that the children themselves must be given the opportunity to relate their story. Methodologically, the enslaved child’s liberation cannot take place without the child assuming her or his own voice – thus to give their consent to the telling of their story. Only on this basis can researchers legitimately join with (former) enslaved children in the fight against slavery. Moreover, it is clear that the teller can gain personally from telling their story, being emboldened and empowered through the act of speaking out: to take away that possibility of telling from the (formerly or still currently) enslaved person means to continue engaging in their silencing and marginalisation, thereby denying their personhood – as is the case in slavery. Obviously, those enslaved to one or other ancient Roman are no longer able to tell their own story. For this reason – and hence not out of disregard for the voice of those actually concerned – I emphasise ‘the enslaved voice’ in my work. Indeed, I contend against the widely held view that the sources for Roman slavery are essentially devoid of 'the enslaved voice' that that voice can be heard in our evidence.
In sum, I hold that historians have a responsibility to bring to life again the voices of those who cannot do so any longer – and in particular those voices that others sought to silence: in this way historians join the community of action that rejects slave exploitation today, by giving the topic centre-stage, and by providing scope for the views of those not easily heard in the evidence because of their subjection to a past domination.
I thoroughly enjoy teaching at undergraduate level – be it in the large first-year lecture theatre and covering the history of Rome from its beginnings to Empire, the more advanced second-year historiography and methodology courses, or in the thematically focused Honours classes. I typically offer one or two of the following Honours courses per year, and teach annually on three sub-honours courses:
- Ancient Greek Slavery (option)
- Roman Slavery (option)
- Society and Epigraphy in Roman Italy (option)
- Life and Labour in the Ancient World (option)
- Law and Life at Rome (option)
- Roman Imperialism (option)
- Ancient History 2a: Past and Present in the Ancient World
- Ancient History 2b: Themes and Theories in Ancient History
- Classics: Roman World 1a
My postgraduate teaching arises from my research – primarily into (Roman) slavery, but also into the history of what is often called ‘pre-Roman’ Italy. I very much enjoy the focused, small-group seminar atmosphere of our MSc courses – and normally teach one of the following thematic courses each year. I also contribute to our skills and methodology training in Classics at postgraduate level:
Thematic ('Option') Courses:
- Agricultural Slavery in the Graeco-Roman World
- Slavery, Society and Law at Rome
- The Making of Roman Italy
|Donati, Laura||PhD||Slave crime and punishment at Rome [UoE HCA PhD Studentship, 2017-20]||Primary||2017|
|Ghiringhelli, Ambra||PhD||The religious involvement and cultic activity of slaves in the Graeco-Roman world [AHRC Doctoral Award, and UoE Principal Career Development Scholarship, 2016-19]||Primary||2016|
|Nutter, Rory||PhD||Understanding the Roman conquest of Italy through the lens of epigraphy [Kerr-Fry-Doctoral Scholarship, 2016-19]||Primary||2016|
|Rolls, Madison||PhD||Educating slaves: a comparative analysis of the Roman slave’s role in education [UoE College Research Award, 2018-21]||Primary||2018|
|Thorp, Thaddeus||PhD||Beyond the freedman: commercially driven social mobility in the Roman world [AHRC Doctoral Award, 2017-20]||Primary||2017|
|Morbidoni, Pier Luigi||PhD||Freedom and citizenship in the Roman Empire: legal and epigraphic approaches to status identification [AHRC Doctoral Award, and UoE College Research Award, 2016-18]||Primary||2019|
|Jodoin, Jared||PhD||Pro-slavery and the Classics in Antebellum America, 1840-1860: Thomas Cobb, Louisa McCord, George Frederick Holmes, George Fitzhugh, and James Henry Hammond under scrutiny||Joint||2019|
|Bratton, Amy||PhD||Between bedroom and courtroom: legal and literary perspectives on slaves and the freed in Augustus’ adultery legislation||Primary||2017|
|Sandon, Tatjana||PhD||The freedwoman in the Roman world: the evidence of the Latin inscriptions||Primary||2017|
|Zanovello, Sara||PhD||From slave to free: a legal perspective on Greek manumission [Borsa di Ateneo, Università di Padova, 2013-15]||Joint||2016|
|MacMaster, Thomas||PhD||The transformative impact of the slave trade on the Roman world, 580-720 [UoE HCA McMillan Scholarship, 2012-13]||Secondary||2016|
|Brosgill (née Reibman), Abigail||PhD||Apennine appetites: food and identity in central south Italy, c. 400-100 BC [UoE HCA McMillan Scholarship, 2011-12 and 2012-13]||Primary||2015|
|Lewis, Juan||PhD||Role and function of the vicariat in Roman slavery [Marie Curie Doctoral Fellowship (Universität Bielefeld), 2008-9]||Primary||2013|
|Morton, Peter||PhD||Refiguring the Sicilian slave revolts: from servile discontent to civic disquiet and social disorder [UoE CHSS PhD Studentship, 2008-11]||Primary||2012|
|Reibman, Abigail||MScR||Food and identity in the 'Roman villa'||Primary||2011|
|Morton, Peter||MScR||Re-thinking the Sicilian slave rebellions [UoE HCA Masters Scholarship; and Helen Philip Memorial Scholarship, 2007-8]||Primary||2009|
Currently accepting research student applications : Yes
Areas accepting Research Students in:
Dr Roth welcomes inquiries from prospective doctoral students who wish to work in the areas of her research expertise, esp. the study of ancient Italy, Roman historiography and, foremost, ancient slavery.
|Access to electronic copies of Dr Roth’s publications is available via her profile page on the Edinburgh Research Explorer: EDINBURGH RESEARCH EXPLORER|
Roth, U., The Curse of Thistle and Thorn: Child Slavery in Ancient Rome (in preparation)
Roth, U., Saving libertas: Livy, the Gallic Sack of Rome, and the Shape of Roman History (under consideration)
Roth, U., Thinking Tools. Agricultural Slavery between Evidence and Models (London: ICS, 2007)
López Barja de Quiroga, P., Masi Doria, C., Roth, U. (edd.), Beyond the Black Hole: Locating Junian Latins in the Roman Empire, 2 vols. (in preparation)
Roth, U. (ed.), By the Sweat of Your Brow: Roman Slavery in its Socio-Economic Setting (London: ICS, 2010)
Roth, U., 'Was Camillus right? Roman history and narratological strategy in Livy 5.49.2', Classical Quarterly 70.1 (2020), in press
Roth, U., 'The Gallic ransom and the Sack of Rome: Livy 5.48.7-8', Mnemosyne 71.3 (2018), 460-484
Roth, U., 'Liberating the Cena', Classical Quarterly 66.2 (2016), 614-634
Roth, U., 'Slavery and the Church in Visigothic Spain: the donation and will of Vincent of Huesca', Antiquité Tardive 24 (2016), 433-452
Roth, U., 'Paul, Philemon, and Onesimus: a Christian design for mastery', Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 105.1 (2014), 102-130
Roth, U., 'An(other) epitaph for Trimalchio: Sat. 30.2', Classical Quarterly 64.1 (2014), 422-425
Roth, U., 'Textile production and gender in ancient Italy: the case of the "Oscan" loom weights', Ostraka 21.1 (2011 ), 89-108
Roth, U., 'Comic shackles', Mnemosyne 65.4 (2012), 746-749
Roth, U., 'in uilicationem relegauit: Petronius, Satyrica 69.3', Revue de Philologie 83.2 (2009 ), 253-260
Roth, U., 'Men without hope', Papers of the British School at Rome 79 (2011), 71-94
Roth, U., 'Cicero, a legal dispute, and a terminus ante quem for the large-scale exploitation of female slaves in Roman Italy: de finibus 1.4.12', Index 36 (2008), 557-565
Roth, U., 'To have and to be: food, status and the peculium of agricultural slaves', Journal of Roman Archaeology 18 (2005), 278-292
Roth, U., 'No more slave gangs: Varro, De re rustica 1.2.20-1', Classical Quarterly 55.1 (2005), 310-315
Roth, U., 'Inscribed meaning: the vilica and the villa economy', Papers of the British School at Rome 72 (2004), 101-124
Roth, U., 'Food rations in Cato's De agricultura and female slave labour', Ostraka 11 (2002 ), 195-213
Roth, U., 'Promoting Junian Latinity: Columella, De re rustica 1.8.19', in P. López Barja de Quiroga, C. Masi Doria and U. Roth (edd.), Beyond the Black Hole: Locating Junian Latins in the Roman Empire, Vol. 1 (2021), Ch. 7
Roth, U., 'Reading Pliny’s Junian Latins', in P. López Barja de Quiroga, C. Masi Doria and U. Roth (edd.), Beyond the Black Hole: Locating Junian Latins in the Roman Empire, Vol. 1 (2021), Ch. 8
Roth, U., 'On the function of public slavery in ancient Rome', in F. Luciani (ed.), Being Everybody's Slaves. Public Slavery in the Ancient and the Modern World (2020), forthcoming
Roth, U., '"Nec turpe est, quod dominus iubet": child sexual abuse and the enslaved voice in the Cena Trimalchionis', in D. Kamen and C. W. Marshall (edd.), Slavery and Sexuality in Classical Antiquity (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2020), in press
Roth, U., 'De l’Euphrate à la Graeca urbs: esclavagisme et migration à Rome. Le cas d’Herméros dans le Satyricon de Pétrone', in M. T. Schettino (ed.), Migrations, mobilité et transferts culturels: le cas des régions frontalières dans l’antiquité (Mulhouse: PU, 2020), in press
Roth, U., 'When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes ... Livy (and Polybius) on the Gallic Sack of Rome', in A. Jönsson and A. Damtoft Poulsen (edd.), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (Lund: The Royal Society of Letters at Lund, 2020), in press
Roth, U., 'Paul and slavery: economic perspectives', in T. R. Blanton and R. Pickett (edd.), Paul and Economics. A Handbook (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2017), 155-182
Roth, U., 'Peculium, freedom, citizenship: golden triangle or vicious circle? An act in two parts', in U. Roth (ed.), By the Sweat of Your Brow: Roman Slavery in its Socio-Economic Setting (London: ICS, 2010), 91-120
Roth, U., 'Going astray: Classics and the NSS', CUCD Bulletin 40 (2011), 6-15
Roth, U., 'Doing the sums: a quantitative reply to the AHRC supported ERIH project', CUCD Bulletin 35 (2006), 6-24
Roth, U. 'Anything but enlightened: child slavery in the Roman world', The Historian 144 (2020), forthcoming
Roth, U., 'Q&A: Were Britons taken as slaves during the Roman period? If so, would they be sent to Europe or kept in Britain?', BBC History Magazine 2|Feb (2019), 94
Roth, U., 'The politics of classical allusion? "Strong and stable leadership"', Epistula 14 (2017), 14-15
Roth, U., 'Excavating Troy ... in Roman social history: or how to date the Satyricon', Epistula 12 (2016), 7-8
Roth, U., 'Beyond Vagnari: a Small achievement', in A. Small (ed.), Beyond Vagnari. New Themes in the Study of Roman South Italy (Bari: Edipuglia, 2014), 5-6
Roth, U., 'ICHOS/ISOS', in H. Heinen et al. (edd.), Handwörterbuch der antiken Sklaverei (Mainz 2006/8)
Roth, U., Review of: D. K. Pettegrew, W. R. Caraher and T. W. Davis (edd.). The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Archaeology (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2019), Bryn Mawr Classical Review (forthcoming)
Roth, U., Review of: I. E. Ramelli, Social Justice and the Legitimacy of Slavery. The Role of Philosophical Asceticism from Ancient Judaism to Late Antiquity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), Athenaeum (2020), in press
Roth, U., Review of: S. M. Elliott, Family Empires, Roman and Christian. Vol. 1: Roman Family Empires. Household, Empire, Resistance (Salem, OR: Polebridge Press, 2018), Historische Zeitschrift 309.3 (2019), 722-723
Roth, U., Review of: D. Vaucher, Sklaverei in Norm und Praxis. Die frühchristlichen Kirchenordnungen (Hildesheim: Weidmann, 2017), Historische Zeitschrift 309.2 (2019), 432-433
Roth, U., Review of: R. MacLean, Freed Slaves and Roman Imperial Culture. Social Integration and the Transformation of Values (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), Historische Zeitschrift 309.2 (2019), 430-431
Roth, U., Review of: H. Leppin, Die frühen Christen: Von den Anfängen bis Konstantin (München: C. H. Beck, 2018), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2019.08.20
Roth, U., Review of: A. Rio, Slavery after Rome, 500-1100 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), Early Medieval Europe 27 (2019), 151-153
Roth, U., Review of: M. B. Kartzow, The Slave Metaphor and Gendered Enslavement in Early Christian Discourse: Double Trouble Embodied (London and New York: Routledge, 2018), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2018.12.28
Roth, U., Review of: C. Laes and J. Strubbe, Youth in the Roman Empire: The Young and the Restless Years? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), Journal of Roman Studies 107 (2018), 217-218
Roth, U., Review of: M. Dondin-Payre and N. Tran (edd.), Esclaves et maîtres dans le monde romain. Expressions épigraphiques de leurs relations (Rome: Ecole Française de Rome, 2017), Sehepunkte 18 (2018), no. 10 (15/10/18)
Roth, U., "Oscan, Greek, and more: the linguistic history of central and southern Italy from a non-Roman perspective", Review of: N. Zair, Oscan in the Greek Alphabet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), Journal of Roman Archaeology 31 (2018), 597-602
Roth, U., Review of: K. A. Shaner, Enslaved Leadership in Early Christianity (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2018), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2018.08.27
Roth, U., Review of: S. Roselaar (ed.), Processes of Cultural Change and Integration in the Roman World (Leiden: Brill, 2015), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2018.03.04
Roth, U., Review of: J. R. Harrison and L. L. Welborn (edd.), The First Urban Churches 1. Methodological Foundations (Atlanta: SBL Press, 2015), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2017.04.29
Roth, U., Review of: M. J. Perry, Gender, Manumission, and the Roman Freedwoman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), Ancient History Bulletin Online-Reviews 6 (2016), 104-107
Roth, U., Review of: O. Devillers (ed.), Autour du Pline le Jeune (Bordeaux: Ausonius, 2014), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2016.04.52
Roth, U., Review of: S. Bell and T. Ramsby (edd.), Free at Last! The Impact of Freed Slaves on the Roman Empire (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 2012), Hermathena 191 (2011 ), 130-133
Roth, U., Review of: K. Harper, Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275-425 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), Sehepunkte 09.20599 (2012)
Roth, U., Review of: S. Joshel, Slavery in the Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), Ancient History Bulletin Online-Reviews 1 (2011), 27-29
Roth, U., Review of: M. Trümper, Graeco-Roman Slave Markets. Fact or Fiction? (Oxford and Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books, 2009), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.12.20
Roth, U., Review of: H. Heinen (ed.), Menschenraub, Menschenhandel und Sklaverei in antiker und moderner Perspektive (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2008), Journal of Roman Studies 100 (2010), 262-264
Roth, U., "Plus ça change?", Review of: P. duBois, Slavery: Antiquity and its Legacy (London and New York: Taurus, 2010), BBC History Magazine 11.2 (2010), 75
Roth, U., "Reading in the dark", Review of: H. Flower (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)' Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.07.47
Roth, U., "No perfect crime", Review of: K. Jenkins, Refiguring History. New Thoughts on an Old Discipline (London and New York: Routledge, 2003), Digressus 3 (2003), 5-10