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Semester 1

Computer Architecture and Design (INFR10076)

Subject

Informatics

College

SCE

Credits

20

Normal Year Taken

3

Delivery Session Year

2022/2023

Pre-requisites

Course Title: Informatics 2C - Introduction to Computer SystemsCourse Code: INFR08018

Course Summary

In this course you will learn how to design a computer and understand the performance characteristics of computers. You will first acquire a working knowledge of digital design, through the Verilog Hardware Description Language, along with a good theoretical grounding in the design of the key components of a microprocessor. You will have an opportunity to learn, both theoretically and practically, how the Quantitative Approach to computer architecture enables computer architects to analyse and optimize microprocessors to maximize performance. Along the way you will design real hardware, and later in the course you will apply your recently-acquired knowledge of quantitative computer architecture to analyse a simulated system and optimize its performance.

Course Description

This new course presents a logical re-factoring of a sub-set of the material previously contained in the UG3 Computer Architecture and Computer Design courses. The aim of this course is to give students a comparatively deep understanding of computer architecture, to an intermediate level, together with a solid understanding of techniques used to design the logical building blocks from which a computer is constructed. We consider an intermediate level in computer architecture to extend up to the point where students have a good understanding of instruction set architecture, single-issue in-order pipelined execution of instructions, superscalar out-of-order execution, and the memory hierarchies required by those processors. Within a processor, we explore the principles and practice of arithmetic and logic unit design, of the caches from which memory hierarchies are constructed, and the memory and logic gate technologies from which computers are constructed. Throughout the course, there is a strong emphasis on the Quantitative Approach to computer architecture; this informs not only the theoretical topics but also the practical assignments, which always embody some element of the quantitative approach.The philosophy of this course is that learning about computer architecture is particularly effective if reinforced by implementing key aspects of processor design, in real hardware when feasible, but also at higher levels of abstraction using simulated systems. This approach has been used very effectively in the previous Computer Design and Computer Architecture courses, and feedback often cites the value placed on the lab exercises by students.Outline ContentsFundamentalsReview of logic design and implementation technologies; from simple combinational logic to state machines for sequential circuits; logic design using Verilog and introduction to FPGAs.Register Transfer Level design principles; registers, clocks, timing budgets, setup and hold margins, clock skew, clock-domain crossing and synchronization, metastability.Quantitative computer architecture; performance evaluation methods and metrics, principles of high-performance design.Processor ArchitectureInstruction Set Architecture (ISA) design; instruction set classes, registers, memory addressing. RISC vs CISC, how the ISA supports high-level languages, quantitative approach to ISA design. Example ISAs (e.g. MIPS, RISC-V). ISA requirements for embedded systems.Pipelined processor design; pipeline hazards and interlocks, control prediction techniques and their usage.Out-of-order execution; scoreboards, reservation stations, register renaming, quantitative analysis of performance.Computer Arithmetic and ALU DesignIntroduction to binary arithmetic functions; fixed-point addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.Advanced techniques in computer arithmetic; carry-look ahead adders, parallel-prefix adders, Booth-coded multipliers, Wallace and Dadda trees, sub-word parallelism, fractional fixed-point multiply- accumulate operations.Floating-point computations; IEEE standard, floating-point addition and multiplication, high-performance fused-multiply-add architectures.Memory System DesignMemory hierarchies; review of principles, quantitative analysis of memory hierarchy performance; exploring the design space of cache parameters.Cache coherence in multi-core architectures; protocols and implementation techniques.Main memory design; Interfacing between processor and memory, synchronous and asynchronous bus protocols.Error detection and correction schemes; parity, Hamming codes, SECDED.***This course replaces Computer Design (INFR09046) and Computer Architecture (INFR09009) FROM 2019/20.***

Assessment Information

Written Exam 60%, Coursework 40%, Practical Exam 0%

Additional Assessment Information

Assessment Weightings: Written Examination: 60% Practical Examination: 0% Coursework: 40% This course is summatively assessed using a combination of written exam and coursework exercises. The coursework reinforces lecture-based teaching by setting tasks in which students design and implement some aspect of a microprocessor, both in real hardware and also at higher levels of abstraction, using simulated systems. Therefore, a higher than normal weighting is given to the coursework (40%), with the remainder of the assessment (60%) coming from a written exam. There is no requirement to pass any individual element of the coursework.

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