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Semester 1

Water Engineering, Transport and Treatment 3 (CIVE09035)


Civil Engineering





Normal Year Taken


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Students need a prior understanding of fluid mechanics which would be adequately gained via enrolment on any civil engineering degree programme. The course is not suitable for non-engineers.

Course Summary

This course is a natural extension of the hydrological component of Environmental Engineering and Sustainability 2 and the hydraulic component Fluid Mechanics 2. The course covers: the practical considerations arising from the demand for water from community development; water transport in pipe systems and open-channels; modern treatment processes for water, wastewater and sludge; effluent disposal; river pollution. It provides Civil Engineers with the necessary tools to design a Water or Wastewater Treatment Plant, essential knowledge for the 4th Year Design Project on Potable Water. This course is intended to: provide insight into the fundamental problems of water transport, and water and wastewater treatment engineering; develop understanding of steady flow in pipe systems, pipe networks,pumping mains, and open channels; outline the methods for the production of potable water,wastewater treatment for safe disposal, and the fundamental design of treatment works.

Course Description

Flow in Pipes (12 hours of lectures and class examples)1 Fundamentals of hydrodynamics and steady flow in pipes (3hours)Revision of 2nd year fluid mechanics: energy balance and graphical representation of Energy and Hydraulic grade lines; localized dissipations; hydraulically-long pipes and hydraulic functioning of gravity mains 2 Pipe networks: schemes of aqueducts with pipes in series and parallel (3hours) Supply and storage reservoirs: design and verification problem; distributed and emergency supply to user and reservoir systems; 3 Pipe networks: schemes of aqueducts with branched and loop systems (3 hours)Branched systems and economic criterion to solve hydraulically undetermined problems; design of open branched networks; Looped systems, design and verification: the Hardy-Cross method; 4 Pumped and Sewer systems (3hours)Pumped systems and application examples in Civil Engineering; pumps and pump-pipe characteristics; start and stop operation schemes; hydraulic design of pumped systems; Partially full pipes and applications to sewer systems: schemes of dendritic networks, sewer surcharging and flooding.Flow in Open Channels (12 hours of lectures and class examples)1. Introduction to open channel flow: Friction in long channels, Steady uniform flow in a sloping channel, Ch├ęzy and Manning formulae, Frictionless flow in horizontal channels2. Flow transitions: Froude number, Subcritical, supercritical, and critical flow modes, Velocity of surface waves in short open channels;Specific energy and critical depth concepts,Transitional flows in open channels, The hydraulic jump3. Flow regulation: Flow measurement in an open channel,Gradually varied flow in open channels and hydraulic structures.Water Treatment (10 hours of lectures and class examples)1 Coagulation and Flocculation (4 hours)Colloidal Suspension; Coagulants; Operation of Coagulation and Flocculation Processes; The Jar Test. 2 Clarification (2 hours) Operation and different types of clarification processes.3 Coarse Media Filtration, Waste and Disinfection(2 hours)Principals of Granular Media Filtration; Slow Sand Filtration; Rapid Gravity Filtration; Dual and Multi-Media Gravity Filtration; Backwashing; Air Scouring;4 Waste and Disinfection (2 hours) Disinfection(Chlorination); Sludge Treatment; Hardness Removal.Municipal Wastewater Treatment(10 hours of lectures and class examples)1 Pollution in Natural Water Resources (3 hours) Biological Oxygen Demand and Other Methods of Assessing Oxygen Demand; Organic Stream Pollution and the Sag Curve; Effluent Discharge Standards;2 Sewerage Systems and Wastewater Treatment ,Pre-treatment and Primary Treatment (2 hour)Introduction to Wastewater Treatment (physical operations; chemical operations; biological processes); Pre-treatment (screens) and Primary treatment (settling tanks).3 Secondary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment ,Biological Processes (3 hours)Process Microbiology and Kinetics of Microbial Processes; Aerobic, Anaerobic and Anoxic Biological Treatment Processes; Activated Sludge.Theory of suspended Culture Reactors; F:M Ratio and its use In Design; Mean Cell Residence Time and its use in Design; Design and Operation of the Activated Sludge Process; Effect of Temperature on Design.4 Secondary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment ,Biological Processes (2 hours)Fixed Film Reactors,Trickling Filters, Rotating Biological Contactors.

Assessment Information

Written Exam 80%, Coursework 20%, Practical Exam 0%

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