Comparison of cystoscopy & computed tomographic urography for the diagnosis of ectopic ureters & other causes of urinary incontinence in dogs - study on 14 cases.
- OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic utility of radiographic, ultrasonographic and CT studies in dogs with urinary incontinence and ureteral ectopia have been studied but there is no published evidence to support the preferential use of any modality. The primary objective of this project was to compare cystoscopy and CTU for diagnosis of ectopic ureters and other causes of urinary incontinence in dogs. We hypothesised that CTU is superior and can be used alone in patients presenting with urinary incontinence.
- MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs referred for investigation of urinary incontinence that received both CTU and cystoscopic examination. The left and right ureterovesicular junctions, urethra, urinary bladder, vestibule and vagina were evaluated and scored by two independent and blinded, board certified readers.
- STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The level of agreement between was examined by Cohen’s Kappa statistics.
- RESULTS: 14 dogs met the inclusion criteria. CT and cystoscopy showed very good agreement in diagnosis of urolithiasis, good agreement in diagnosing ureteral ectopia, fair agreement for urinary bladder changes, moderate agreement for urethral changes and poor agreement for vaginal and vestibular changes.
- CONCLUSIONS: CT urography and cystoscopy should both be used for the diagnostic work up of urinary incontinent dogs. Large-scale, multi-centre, prospective studies are needed to further assess if CTU and cystoscopy can be performed separately or are complementary, and to assess their true diagnostic accuracy in cases of canine urinary incontinence.
- Analysis of existing data
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