New publication in Scientific Reports
Publication date: August 2021
Publication title: "Early decompressive hemicraniectomy in thrombolyzed acute ischemic stroke patients from the international ENCHANTED trial".
Authors: Xia C, Wang X, Lindley RI, Delcourt C, Chen X, Zhou Z, Guo R, Carcel C, Malavera A, Calic Z, Mair G, Wardlaw JM, Robinson TG, Anderson CS.
Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) can improve outcomes for patients with severe forms of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but the evidence is mainly derived from non-thrombolyzed patients. We aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of early DHC in thrombolyzed AIS participants of the international Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). Post-hoc analyses of ENCHANTED, an international, partial-factorial, open, blinded outcome-assessed, controlled trial in 4557 thrombolysis-eligible AIS patients randomized to low- versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase (Arm A, n = 2350), intensive versus guideline-recommended blood pressure control (Arm B, n = 1280), or both (Arms A + B, n = 947). Logistic regression models were used to identify baseline variables associated with DHC, with inverse probability of treatment weights employed to eliminate baseline imbalances between those with and without DHC. Logistic regression was also used to determine associations of DHC and clinical outcomes of death/disability, major disability, and death (defined by scores 2-6, 3-5, and 6, respectively, on the modified Rankin scale) at 90 days post-randomization. There were 95 (2.1%) thrombolyzed AIS patients who underwent DHC, who were significantly younger, of non-Asian ethnicity, and more likely to have had prior lipid-lowering treatment and severe neurological impairment from large vessel occlusion than other patients. DHC patients were more likely to receive other management interventions and have poor functional outcomes than non-DHC patients, with no relation to different doses of intravenous alteplase. Compared to other thrombolyzed AIS patients, those who received DHC had a poor prognosis from more severe disease despite intensive in-hospital management.