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Link between autism genes and higher intelligence

Researchers in the Division of Psychiatry have published their findings that genes linked with a greater risk of developing autism may also be associated with higher intelligence.

Researchers at the CCBS Division of Psychiatry have found new evidence linking genetic factors associated with autism to better cognitive ability in people who do not have the condition.

The relationship between autism and intelligence is not clear, researchers say. Although up to 70 per cent of individuals with autism have an intellectual disability, some people with the disorder have relatively well-preserved, or even higher than average, non-verbal intelligence, the team says.

Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant language and speech difficulties. Non-verbal intelligence enables people to solve complex problems using visual and hands-on reasoning skills requiring little or no use of language.

Researchers at the Universities of Edinburgh and Queensland analysed almost 10,000 people recruited from the general population of Scotland. Individuals were tested for general cognitive ability and had their DNA analysed.

The team found that even among people who never develop autism, carrying genetic traits associated with the disorder is, on average, linked to scoring slightly better on cognitive tests.

Read the study in the journal Molecular Psychiatry:

Our findings show that genetic variation which increases risk for autism is associated with better cognitive ability in non-autistic individuals. As we begin to understand how genetic variants associated with autism impact brain function, we may begin to further understand the nature of autistic intelligence.

Dr Toni-Kim ClarkeDivision of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh

Researchers found further evidence of a link between autism-associated genes and intelligence when they carried out the same tests on 921 adolescents who were part of the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Study.

Links between autism and better cognitive function have been suspected and are widely implied by the well-known 'Silicon Valley syndrome' and films such as 'Rain Man' as well as in popular literature. This study suggests genes for autism may actually confer, on average, a small intellectual advantage in those who carry them, provided they are not affected by autism.

Professor Nick MartinQueensland Institute for Medical Research

Related Links

Complex trait genetics research at CCBS

Professor Andrew McIntosh Principal Investigator profile

Division of Psychiatry

Patrick Wild Centre for Research into Autism, Fragile X Syndrome and Intellectual Disabilities