Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine

Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine

Dr Holger Schulze

I am working in the field of electrochemical biosensors and microarrays for molecular diagnostics.

Dr Holger Schulze

Research Interests

  • More than 10 years experience in biosensor research including the development of amperometric enzyme biosensors, screen-printing, electrochemical sensors for DNA detection as well as protein and DNA microarrays.
  • Part of a multi-disciplinary research team working on the development of a theranostic biosensor platform and a diagnostic platform to support chronic wound care.


Syed, S.N., Schulze, H., Macdonald, D., Crain, J., Mount, A.R., Bachmann, T.T. (2013) Cyclic denaturation and renaturation of double-stranded DNA by redox-state switching of DNA intercalators. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 5399-5407.

Corrigan, D. K., Schulze, H., Henihan, G., Hardie, A., Ciani, I., Giraud, G., Terry, J. G., Walton, A. J., Pethig, R., Ghazal, P., Crain, J., Campbell, C. J., Templeton, K. E., Mount, A. R., Bachmann, T. T. (2013) Development of a PCR-free electrochemical point of care test for clinical detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Analyst, 138, 6997-7005.

Nonaka Y,Yoshida W, Abe K, Ferri S, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Ikebukuro K (2013) Affinity improvement of a VEGF aptamer by in silico maturation for a sensitive VEGF-detection system. Anal. Chem. 85, 1132-1137.

Schulze H, Barl T, Vase H, Baier S, Thomas P, Giraud G, Crain J, Bachmann TT. (2012) Enzymatic on-Chip Enhancement for High Resolution Genotyping DNA Microarrays. Anal. Chem. 84, 5080-5084.

Corrigan DK*, Schulze H*, Henihan G, Ciani I, Giraud G, Terry JG, Walton AJ, Pethig R, Ghazal P, Crain J, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Bachmann TT. (2012) Impedimetric detection of single-stranded PCR products derived from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 34, 178-184. *These authors contributed equally to this study.

Ciani I, Schulze H, Corrigan DK, Henihan G, Giraud G, Terry JG, Walton AJ, Pethig R, Ghazal P, Crain J, Campbell CJ, Bachmann TT, Mount AR. (2012) Development of immunosensors for direct detection of three wound infection biomarkers at point of care using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors & Biolelectronics. 31, 413-418.

Giraud G, Pethig R, Schulze H, Henihan G, Terry JG, Menachery A, Ciani I, Corrigan D, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Ghazal P, Walton AJ, Crain J, Bachmann TT. (2011) Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA. Biomicrofluidics. 5, 024116. (selected for inclusion in the July 1, 2011 issue of Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research).

Schulze H, Ross AJ, Ember SWJ, Luby J, Khondoker M, Giraud G, Ciani I, Tlili C, Papale D, Terry JG, Mount AR, Walton AJ, Crain J, Ghazal P, Bachmann TT, and Campbell CJ. (2011) Peptide-tags for enhanced DNA microarray performance. Faraday Discuss. 149, 201-210.

Roepcke CBS, Muench SB, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Hauer B, (2011) Tailoring biosensors for Brazil: Detection of insecticides in foods. Food Control 22, 1061-1071.

Dounin V, Constantinof A, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, and Kerman K. (2011) Electrochemical detection of interaction between Thioflavin T and acetylcholinesterase. Analyst. 136, 1234-1238.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Li DU, Bachmann TT, Crain J, Tyndall D, Richardson J, Walker R, Stoppa D, Charbon E, Henderson R, and Arlt J. (2010) Fluorescence lifetime biosensing with DNA microarrays and a CMOS-SPAD imager. Biomed. Opt. Express. 1, 1302-1308.

Khondoker MR, Bachmann TT, Mewissen M, Dickinson P, Dobrzelecki B, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Walton AJ, Crain J, Schulze H, Giraud G, Ross AJ, Ciani I, EmberSW, TliliC, Terry JG, Grant E, McDonnell N, and Ghazal P. (2010) Multi-factorial analysis of class prediction error: estimating optimal number of biomarkers for various classification rules. J. Bioinform. Comput. Biol. 8, 945-965.

Brinker A, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Moeller R (2010). Lambda exonuclease pre-treatment for improved DNA-chip performance depends on the relative probe-target position. Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 898-902.

Roepcke CBS, Muench SB, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Hauer B (2010). Analysis of Phosphorothionate Pesticides Using a Chloroperoxidase Pretreatment and Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58: 8748-8756.

Dounin V, Veloso AJ, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Kerman K (2010). Disposable electrochemical printed gold chips for the analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Anal. Chim. Acta, 669: 63-67.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Campbell CJ, Mount AR, Ghazal P, Khondoker MR, Ember SWJ, Ciani I, Tlili C, Walton AJ, Terry JG, Crain J (2010). Solution state hybridization detection using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of quantum dot-DNA bioconjugates. Chem Phys Letters 484: 309-314.

Schulze H, Giraud G, Crain J, and Bachmann TT (2009). Multiplexed optical pathogen detection with lab-on-a-chip devices. J Biophotonics. 2: 199-211.

Giraud G, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Campbell CJ, Mount RA, Ghazal P, Khondoker MR, Ross AJ, Ember SW, Ciani I, Tlili C, Walton AJ, Terry JG, and Crain J (2009). Fluorescence lifetime imaging of quantum dot labeled DNA microarrays. Int. J Mol Sci 10: 1930-1941.

Richter S, Nieveler J, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (2006). High yield production of a mutant Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Acetylcholinesterase in Pichia pastoris and its purification. Biotechnol Bioeng 93:1017-1022.

Teller C, Halamek J, Makower A, Fournier D, Schulze H, Scheller FW (2006). A piezoelectric sensor with propidium as a recognition element for cholinesterases. Sensors Actuators, B: Chem B113(1): 1017-1022.

Shumyantseva VV, Bulko TV, Samenkova NF, Kuznetsova GP, Usanov SA, Schulze H, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD, Archakov AI (2006). A new format of electrodes for the electrochemical reduction of cytochromes P450. J Inorg Biochem 100(8): 1353-1357.

Schulze H, Muench SB, Villatte F, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2005). Insecticide Detection through Protein Engineering of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Acetylcholinesterase B. Anal Chem 77:5823-5830.

Waibel M, Schulze H, Huber N, Bachmann TT (2005). Screen-printed bienzymatic sensor based on sol-gel immobilized Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase and a cytochrome P450 BM-3 (CYP102-A1) mutant. Biosens Bioelectron 21: 1132-1140.

Zhang YD, Muench SB, Schulze H, Perz R, Yang BL, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2005). Disposable biosensor test for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in milk. J Agric Food Chem 53:5110-5115.

Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2004). Activation of phosphorothionate pesticides based on a cytochrorne P450BM-3 (CYP102 A1) mutant for expanded neurotoxin detection in food using acetylcholinesterase biosensors. Anal Chem 76:1720-1725.

Schulze H, Nonhoff U, Villatte F, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2004). Highly sensitive neurotoxin detection using disposable acetylcholinesterase biosensors at elevated temperatures. Sensor Lett 2:121-124.

Schulze H, Vorlova S, Villatte F, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (2003). Design of acetylcholinesterases for biosensor applications. Biosens Bioelectron 18:201-209.

Villatte F, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2003). A long insertion reverts the functional effect of a substitution in acetylcholinesterase. Protein Eng 16:463-465.

Maurer S, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Urlacher V (2003). Immobilisation of P450BM-3 and an NADP(+) cofactor recycling system: Towards a technical application of heme-containing monooxygenases in fine chemical synthesis. Adv Synth Catal 345:802-810.

Villatte F, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). A disposable acetylcholinesterase-based electrode biosensor to detect anatoxin-a(s) in water. Anal Bioanal Chem 372:322-326.

Schulze H, Scherbaum E, Anastassiades M, Vorlova S, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). Development, validation, and application of an acetylcholinesterase-biosensor test for the direct detection of insecticide residues in infant food. Biosens Bioelectron 17:1095-1105.

Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002). Rapid detection of neurotoxic insecticides in food using disposable acetylcholinesterase-biosensors and simple solvent extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 372:268-272.

Conference Presentations

Biosensors 2014, Melbourne, Australia. Oral presentation "Of Sample Preparation and Biomarkers – Turning Good Biosensors into Better Molecular Diagnostics"
SCIENION's Workshop Series DIAGNOSTICS 4.0 - Miniaturized Assays: Technologies, Applications & Markets, Berlin, Germany. Oral presentation "Rapid Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance: From Microarrays to Point of Care Testing with Electrochemical Biosensors"
German Biosensor Symposium, Wildau (Germany). Oral presentation “Direct label-free molecular detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using an impedimetric biosensor"
Biosensors 2012, Cancun, Mexico. Oral presentation "Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA for nucleic acid biosensors"
German Biosensor Symposium, Heiligenstadt (Germany). Oral presentation “Enhanced enzymatic signal amplification for impedimetric DNA biosensors"
20th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors, Glasgow, UK. Oral presentation “Improving the sensitivity and speed of DNA microarrays”
German Biosensor Symposium, Freiburg (Germany). Oral presentation “Improving the sensitivity and speed of DNA microarrays”
Advances in Microarray Technology, Barcelona (Spain). Oral presentation “Automated Production of Functional Hepatitis C Protein Microarrays on 3D Substrates Using Inkjet”
VIII International Meeting on Cholinesterases, Perugia (Italy). Oral presentation “Highly sensitive insecticide detection by protein engineering of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase”
The Seventh World Congress on Biosensors, Kyoto (Japan). Poster “Disposable AChE-biosensor for rapid infant food testing with high accuracy at trace concentrations”