Dinosaurs might have survived if the asteroid that killed them had struck slightly earlier or later, scientists say.
A fresh study led by Edinburgh uses up-to-date fossil records and improved analytical tools to help palaeontologists build a new narrative of the prehistoric creatures’ demise, some 66 million years ago.
Our new findings help clarify one of the enduring mysteries of science.
They found that in the few million years before a 10km-wide asteroid struck what is now Mexico, Earth was experiencing environmental upheaval.
This included extensive volcanic activity, changing sea levels and varying temperatures.
At this time, the dinosaurs’ food chain was weakened by a lack of diversity among the large plant-eating dinosaurs on which others preyed.
This was probably because of changes in the climate and environment.
This created a perfect storm in which dinosaurs were vulnerable and unlikely to survive the aftermath of the asteroid strike.
The impact would have caused tsunamis, earthquakes, wildfires, sudden temperature swings and other environmental changes.
As food chains collapsed, this would have wiped out the dinosaur kingdom one species after another.
The only dinosaurs to survive were those who could fly, which evolved to become the birds of today.
Researchers suggest that if the asteroid had struck a few million years earlier, when the range of dinosaur species was more diverse and food chains were more robust, or later, when new species had time to evolve, then they very likely would have survived.
An international team of palaeontologists led by the University of Edinburgh studied an updated catalogue of dinosaur fossils, mostly from North America, to create a picture of how dinosaurs changed over the few million years before the asteroid hit.
They hope that ongoing studies in Spain and China will aid even better understanding of what occurred.
Their study, published in Biological Reviews, was supported by the US National Science Foundation and the European Commission.
It was led by the Universities of Edinburgh and Birmingham in collaboration with the University of Oxford, Imperial College London, Baylor University, and University College London.
The world’s top dinosaur museums - The Natural History Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, the Royal Ontario Museum, the American Museum of Natural History and the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science - also took part.
The dinosaurs were victims of colossal bad luck. Not only did a giant asteroid strike, but it happened at the worst possible time, when their ecosystems were vulnerable.