Centre for Integrative Physiology

Prof Peter Kind

The Kind laboratory examines the cellular dysfunction associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related monogenic forms of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

Peter Kind

Professor of Developmental Neuroscience

  • Hugh Robson Building
  • room 416
  • 15 George Square

Edinburgh EH8 9XD

Personal profile

Professor Kind is Director of the Patrick Wild Centre for Research into Autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and Intellectual Disability and Professor of Developmental Neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh. He is also Associate Director at the Centre for Brain Development and Repair (CBDR) at the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Instem), Bangalore, India. Professor Kind completed his postdoctoral training with Professor Colin Blakemore at Oxford University and Professor Susan Hockfield at Yale University. Professor Kind received his PhD from Oxford University in 1993.


The laboratory focuses on synaptic function, from the physiological and morphological alterations to the behavioural phenotypes associated with rodent models of these disorders. We also test the hypothesis that distinct genetic causes of ID/ASD convergence on common biochemical and cellular pathologies associated that may be amenable to similar therapeutic approaches.

The mission of the Patrick Wild Centre is to understand the neurological basis of, and to test new therapies for autisms and intellectual disabilities by fostering collaborations between world-class basic science and clinical research at the University of Edinburgh.

Our goals are:

  • To determine the molecular and cellular basis of autism, Fragile X Syndrome and intellectual disabilities.
  • To identify the neuropathological processes that cause the alterations in neuronal communication in people with these neurodevelopmental conditions.
  • To translate our knowledge of the cellular and molecular basis of these neurodevelopmental disorders into therapeutic strategies.
  • To validate these strategies using preclinical models.
  • To undertake clinical trials in partnership with collaborators from the public and private sectors.


  • Medical Research Council
  • Department of Biotechnology, India
  • Lou Lou Foundation
  • The Shirley Foundation
  • RS Macdonald Charitable Trust

Team members

  • Sally Till (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Sam Booker (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Chih-Yuan Chiang (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Kapil Saxena (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Elizabeth Davenport (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Pradeep Krishnamurthy (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Adam Jackson (Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Antonios Asiminas ( Postdoctoral Fellow)
  • Danai Katsanevaki (PhD student)
  • Anna Toft (PhD student)
  • Shinjini Basu (PhD student)
  • Natasha Anstey (PhD Student)
  • Laura  Simoes De Oliveira (PhD Student)
  • Olivia Hamilton (PhD Student)
  • Laura Butterworth (PA)

Former lab members

  • Stephanie Barnes
  • Mark Barnett
  • Alex Crocker-Buque
  • Ruth Deighton
  • Aleks Domanski
  • Mark Hillen
  • Alla Katsnelson
  • Aoife McMahon
  • Tim O’Leary
  • Anne Petrie
  • Tania Vitalis
  • Owen James
  • Lindsay Mizen


  • Mark Bear, Picower Centre, MIT, Cambridge, USA
  • Siddharthan Chandran, University of Edinburgh
  • Sumantra Chattarji, University of Edinburgh
  • Giles Hardingham, University of Edinburgh
  • John Isaac, NIH, Maryland, USA
  • Donald Mitchell, Dalhousie University, Canada
  • Emily Osterweil, University of Edinburgh
  • Nathalie Rochefort, University of Edinburgh
  • Frank Sengpiel, Cardiff University
  • David Wyllie, University of Edinburgh


Crocker-Buque A, Currie SP, Luz LL, Grant SG, Duffy KR, Kind PC, Daw MI (2016) Altered thalamocortical development in the SAP102 knockout model of intellectual disability.Hum Mol Genet. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27466188

Hector RD, Dando O, Landsberger N, Kilstrup-Nielsen C, Kind PC, Bailey ME, Cobb SR. (2016) Characterisation of CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in Human and Mouse. PLoS One;11(6):e0157758.

Márkus NM, Hasel P, Qiu J, Bell KF, Heron S, Kind PC, Dando O, Simpson TI, Hardingham GE. (2016) Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling. PLoS One. 11(2):e0148164.

Livesey MR, Magnani D, Cleary EM, Vasistha NA, James OT, Selvaraj BT, Burr K, Story D, Shaw CE, Kind PC, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJ, Chandran S. (2016) Maturation and electrophysiological properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes. Stem Cells. 34(4):1040-53.

Barnes SB … Kind PC*, Wyllie DJA* Convergence of hippocampal pathophysiology in Syngap+/- and Fmr1-/y mice, J Neurosci. 35:15073-15081 .* joint corresponding author

Till SM … Kind PC (2015) Conserved hippocampal cellular pathophysiology but distinct behavioral deficits in a new rat model of FXS. Hum Mol Genet. 24:5977-84

James OT … Kind PC, Wyllie DJ. (2015) Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptor subunit composition in human pluripotent stem cell-derived excitatory cortical neurones. J Physiol. 2014 Oct 1;592(Pt 19):4353-63.

Wijetunge LS, Angibaud J, Frick A, Kind PC*, Nagerl UV* (2014) Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy reveals nanoscale defects in the developmental trajectory of dendritic spine morphogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 34:6405-6412. Joint corresponding author.

James OT, Livesey MR, Qiu J, Dando O, Bilican B, Haghi G, Rajan R, Burr K, Hardingham GE, Chandran S, Kind PC, Wyllie DJ. (2014) Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptor subunit composition in human pluripotent stem cell-derived excitatory cortical neurones. J Physiol. 592(Pt 19):4353-63.

Filis P, Kind PC, Spears N. (2013) Implantation failure in mice with a disruption in Phospholipase C beta 1 gene: lack of embryonic attachment, aberrant steroid hormone signalling and defective endocannabinoid metabolism. Mol Hum Reprod. 19(5):290-301.

Wijetunge LS, Chattarji S, Wyllie DJ, Kind PC. (2012) Fragile X syndrome: from targets to treatments. Neuropharmacology. 68:83-96. Review.

McMahon AC, Barnett MW, O’Leary TS, Stoney PN, Collins MO, Papadia S, Choudhary JS, Komiyama NH, Grant SGN, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA and Kind PC (2012) Activity-dependent alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing enable SynGAP isoforms to exert opposing effects on synaptic strength. Nature Communications. 3.

Martel M-A, Ryan T, Bell KF, Fowler JH, McMahon A, Al-Mubarak B, Komiyama N, Horsburgh K, Kind PC, Grant SG, Wyllie DJ, Hardingham GE The subtype of GluN2 (2012) C-terminal domain determines the response to excitotoxic insults. Neuron. 74:543-556.

Till SM, Wijetunge LS, Seidel VG, Harlow E, Wright A, Bagni C, Contractor A, Gillingwater TH, Kind PC (2012) Genetic deletion of FMRP alters the trajectory of specific cellular processes during cortical development. Human Molecular Genetics. 21:2143-2156

Jaffer S, Vorobyov V, Kind PC, Sengpiel F (2012) Experience dependent regulation of functional maps in synaptic protein expression in cat visual cortex. Eur. J Neurosci. in press.

Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Beaver CJ, Kelly GM, Matthews RT and Mitchell DE (2012) Development and Activity- Dependent Expression of Aggrecan in the Cat Visual Cortex. Cerebral Cortex. in press.

Harlow EG, Till SM, Russell TA, Wijetunge LS, Kind PC and Contractor A (2010) Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice. Neuron, 65, 385-398.

Thomson RE, Kind PC, Graham NA, Etherson ML, Kennedy J, Fernandes AC, Marques CS, Hevner RF, Iwata T. (2009) Fgf receptor 3 activation promotes selective growth and expansion of occipitotemporal cortex. Neural Dev. 4:4.

Wijetunge L, Till S, Ingham C, Gillingwater T and Kind PC (2008) mGluR5 Regulates Glutamate-Dependent Development of the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex. J. Neurosci. 28:13028-13037.

Watson RF, Abdel-Majid RM, Barnett MW, Willis BS, Katsnelson A, Gillingwater TH, McKnight GS, Kind PC*, and Neumann PE (2006) Involvement of Protein Kinase A in Patterning of the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex. J. Neurosci. 17:5393-5361. *PC Kind is communication author.

Mitchell DE, Kind PC Sengpiel F, Murphy K (2006) Short periods of concordant binocular vision prevent the development of deprivation amblyopia. Eur. J. Neurosci. 23:2458-2466.

Barnett MW, Watson R, Vitalis T, Porter K, Komiyama NH, Stoney PN, Gillingwater TH, Grant SGN and Kind PC SynGAP regulates pattern formation in the trigeminal system of mice. J. Neurosci. 26:1355-1365.

Porter K, Komiyama NH, Vitalis T, Kind PC & Grant SGN (2005) Differential expression of two NMDA receptor interacting proteins, PSD-95 and SynGAP during mouse development. Eur. J. Neurosci. 21:351-362.

Spires TL, Molnar Z, Kind PC, Cordery PM, Upton AL, Blakemore C, Hannan AJ. (2005) Activity-dependent Regulation of Synapse and Dendritic Spine Morphology in Developing Barrel Cortex Requires Phospholipase C-b1 Signalling. Cereb. Cortex 15:385-393.

Mitchell DE, Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Murphy K. (2003) Brief daily periods of binocular vision prevent deprivation-induced acuity loss. Curr. Biol. 13:1704-8.

Sengpiel, F and Kind, PC (2002) The role of activity in the development of the visual system. Curr. Biol. 12:R818-826.

Vitalis T, Cases O, Gillies K, Hanoun N, Hamon M, Seif I, Gaspar P, Kind PC, and Price DJ (2002) Interactions between TrkB-signalling and serotonin excess in the developing murine somatosensory cortex: a role in tangential and radial organisation of thalamocortical axons. J. Neurosci. 22:4987-5000.

Kind PC, Mitchell DE, Ahmed B, Blakemore C, Bonhoeffer T and Sengpiel F (2002) Correlated binocular activity guides recovery from monocular deprivation. Nature 416:430-433.

Hannan AJ, Blakemore C, Katsnelson A, Huber K, Roder JK, Bear M, Kim D, Shin H and Kind PC (2001). Phospholipase C-?1, activated via mGluRs, mediates activity-dependent differentiation in cerebral cortex. Nat. Neurosci. 4, 282-288.

Peter Kind publication list